The Benson Latin American Collection

Kristin Cheasty Anderson Collection on Sandinista Healthcare Reforms, 1925-2009 (bulk 1979-1991)

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Anderson, Kristin Cheasty
Title: Kristin Cheasty Anderson Collection on Sandinista Healthcare Reforms
Dates: 1925-2009
Dates (Bulk): (bulk 1979-1991)
Abstract: This collection contains official reports, government publications, and correspondence about the healthcare reforms enacted by the Sandinista government in Nicaragua; as well as papers, news clippings, and correspondence about the Mexican Catholic Apostolic Church.
Accession No.: 2015-44
Extent: 2 linear feet
Language: English, Spanish
Repository: Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin

Biographical Sketch and Historical Note

Kristin Cheasty Anderson graduated from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill in 2000, and then earned a Master's Degree (2008) and a Ph.D. (2014) from the University of Texas-Austin. Her doctoral dissertation was, Health Reform in Sandinista Nicaragua, 1979-1990. Cheasty Anderson joined the Children's Defence Fund-Texas policy team in Austin in October of 2014. Her work focuses on community organizing, education, and outreach, as well as working with key stakeholders, coalition partners, and elcted officials on strategic planning for advocacy efforts to expand health care access in Texas.

In 1979 the Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN) overthrew President Somoza Debayle of Nicaragua and thereby ended a nearly 50-year dictatorship by the Somoza family. During its time in power in Nicaragua from 1979-1990, the Sandinista government nationalized major industries. Popular among students, workers, and laborers, the Sandinista government organized in local and regional committees, and many members of its leadership espoused Marxist ideologies. From 1979-1990 (when Nicaraguans voted the Sandinista administration out of office,) the government implemented reform campaigns in education, health care, and vocational training. Of these efforts, the development and improvement of health care programs was especially recognized outside of Nicaragua. Vaccination programs eliminated polio and decreased the frequency of other highly contagious illnesses; programs focusing on maternal-fetal health dramatically lowered the infant mortality rate. Cuban personnel and assistance were instrumental in bringing about many of these changes.

The Mexican Catholic Apostolic Church (or ICAM) was founded in 1925, backed by President Calles and created to further revolutionary aims. ICAM's beliefs and doctrine rejected many central tenets of the Catholic Church, such as clerical celibacy, the infallibility of the Pope, and the need for intercession on all matters. It portrayed itself as a national, Mexican church rather than a Roman Catholic subsidiary. ICAM was active throughout Mexico as well as in San Antonio, Texas. Some members of its leadership eventually recanted and reconciled with the Catholic Church; others continued to support the separation and sought a relationship with the Eastern Orthodox Church. Between 1925-1937 approximately 70 ICAM churches were operating; individual parishes dwindled over the years and in 1972 the entire diocese was subsumed into another created order (the Orthodx Church of Mexico).

Scope and Contents Note

The Kristin Cheasty Anderson Collection on Sandinista Healthcare Reforms is divided into two series, by topic: Series One, on the Nicaraguan Sandinista Healthcare System, and Series Two, on the Mexican Catholic Apostolic Church.

Series One is primarily composed of documents copied from the Ministry of Health/Ministerio de Salud (MINSA) archives in Nicaragua. In 1990, following the election that removed the Sandinista government from power, the contents of those archives were burned. The series contains government reports, pamphlets and publications, and policy documentation, as well as documents about international cooperation in their healthcare reform efforts, and circulars published by Nicaragua's united medical workers' association. These materials were collected by Anderson during research for her dissertation; she recorded the original MINSA call numbers, which are preserved on the cover sheets for most of the materials.

Series Two contains articles, essays, and newsclippings from the late 1920s and early 1930s regarding the schism in the Mexican Catholic church, copies of archival correspondence from the Archivio General de la Nación in Mexcio regarding investigations and expulsions of priests and the governance of the Iglesia Católica Apostólica Mexicana (ICAM), as well as later scholarship on the schism that Anderson collected for her own studies.

The Nicaraguan Sandinista Healthcare System series is divided into six subseries. 1) Assorted Ministerio de Salud documents, arranged chronologically. 2) Federacion de Trabajadores de Salud documents, arranged by type and within type, chronologically. 3) Documentation of popular participation, arranged chronologically. 4) National health annual plans and reports, arranged chronologically. 5) International cooperation, arranged chronologically. 6) Other materials, arranged sequentially as received.

The Mexican Catholic Apostolic Church series is divided into three subseries. 1) Contemporary articles and news clippings, arranged sequentially as received. 2) Correspondence from the Archivio General de la Nación, arranged by subject and within subject, chronologically. 3) Scholarship on the Mexican church schism, arranged chronologically.


Access Restrictions


Use Restrictions

Standard copyright restrictions apply.

Index Terms

Subjects (Persons)
Anderson, Kristin Cheasty
Gambrell, Herbert Pickens
Subjects (Organizations)
Sandinista National Liberation Front
Health care reform--Latin America
Catholic Church -- Mexico -- History -- 20th century.

Related Material

Philip Pasmanick Collection of Nicaraguan Materials, 1979-1987

Archiving the Central American Revolutions Micro Oral History Collection

Nicaragua Network Records

Edmundo O'Gorman Collection

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Cite as: Kristin Cheasty Anderson Collection on Sandinista Healthcare Reforms, Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.

Acquisition Information


Accession numbers: 2015-44, 2015-46.

Processing Information

Collection processed by Kristen Van Winkle (Simmons College Intern), 2018.


No further materials are expected for this collection.

Box and Folder Inventory

Sandinista Healthcare System, 1979-1991

Box Folder
1 Assorted Ministerio de Salud documents
1 Información sobre la aplicación de la vacunación antipolio y sobre la vacunación de sarampión, 1979
2 Resoluciones ministeriales 69, 49, 55, 36, 71, 77, 1980
3 División de Planificación, Recursos financieros, 1981
4 Evaluación de población inmunizada y alcanzado con relación a meta programada en el 1° trimestre, 1981
5 Revisión de los progresos en agua potable y alcantarillado, 1981-1985
6 Actividades realizadas en los años 1980-2 en el programa de inmunizaciónes, 1982
7 Programa de Educación Contínua 2° Trimestre, 1982
8 Análisis de los datos de las actividades de inmunización, 1982
9 Extensión de la Cobertura y Aumento de la Calidad de la Atención Materno-Infantil y Bienestar Familiar, 1984
10 Salud y ciencia en la Revolución, 1984
11 Medidas de ahorro en las servicios administrativos y financieros, 1985
12 Resoluciones ministeriales 28-54, 1985-1987
13 Ley #28, La Gaceta No. 238, 1987
14 Análisis de la marcha de los trabajos proyectos, 1988
15 Manual operativo del programa de control de enfermedades immunoprevenible, 1988
16 Resolución ministerial 50, normas higienicas para unidades de salud, 1988
17 Resolución ministerial 56, 1988
18 Reglamento de Inspección Sanitaría, 1989
19 Enfermedades respitorías, folleto 3, reg. II, undated
20 El Gasto Total en Salud: Nicaragua, undated
Federacion de Trabajadores de Salud (FETSALUD) documents
21 El Termómetro Vol. 7, 1983
22 El Termómetro Vol. 9, 1984
23 El Termómetro Vol. 14, 1985
24 El Termómetro Vol. 15, 1985
25 El Termómetro Vol. 17, 1985
26 El Termómetro Vol. 19, 1986
27 El Termómetro Vol. 21, 1987
28 FETSALUD: Declaración de principio estatuos y reglamento instancia de gestión, 1985
Popular participation documentation
29 El Educator y los materiales educativos, 1979
30 III Jornadas Colectivas de Trabajo de MINSA, 1979
Box Folder
2 1 Aplicación simultanea de vacunas, 1981
2 "Primera movilización: Vacunación anitpolio" en Jornadas Populares de Salud, 1981
3 "Manual operativo del capacitador multiplicador y brigadista popular de salud" en Jornadas Populares de Salud, 1981
4 "Manual del brigadista popular de salud" en Jornadas Populares de Salud, 1981
5 "Segunda movilización: Limpieza ambiental" en Joranadas Populares de Salud, 1981
6 Educación y Participación en Salud, 1981
7 Programa de Educación Contínua, Vice-Ministerio de Docencia, 1981
8 Curso de métodos de enseñanza, y Como Hacer y User Materiales de Enseñanza, 1982
9 Manual: Normas y orentaciones de educación y communicación popular en salud, 1986
10 Participación comunitaria en salud: un proceso que avanza, 1989
11 Juntos podemos: evitar las enfermedades que se transmiten a traves de los alimentos contaminados, undated
12 Política de educación para la salud, undated
13 Todos para salud movimiento comunal C.D.S. Folleto 1, Region II, undated
14 Cartilla de salud para el trabajo de los C.D.S., undated
15 La Salud, undated
National health plans and reports
16 Ley Creadora del Nuevo Sistema Nacional de Salud, 1979
17 Plan Nacional Medicina Preventiva, 1980
18 La Salud: un derecho del pueblo 1° aniversario del SNUS, 1980
19 Participación popular en salud: Documento de Trabajo, 1981
20 Informe annual 1980: Ministerio de Salud, 1981
21 Informe 1980 MINSA, 1981
22 Evaluación y analisis de acciones desarrollades en los meses transcurridos de 1980 y proyección hasta fin de año, 1981
23 Plan de salud, 1982
24 Plan de salud, 1983
25 Notas en relación con el "Plan Integral de Actividades del Area de Salud" (PIASS) y el "Libro rojo y negro," 1983
26 Plan de salud, 1984
Box Folder
3 1 Necesidades prioritarias de salud en Nicaragua 1984-1988, 1984
2 Plan Integral de Actividades del Area de Salud: Libro Rojo y Negro, 1986
3 Condiciones salud y logros alcanzados 1982-1985, 1986
4 Plan de salud, 1986
5 Plan de salud, 1987
6 Plan de salud 1988-1990, 1988
7 Campaña nacional por la defensa de la vida del niño, Plan Nacional, 1988
8 Participación gerencial de la mujer en las estructuras de salud en Nicaragua, 1989
9 Sector de salud: análisis de 10 años 1979-1989, 1989
International cooperation
10 Participación popular en salud en la República de Cuba, 1982
11 Anteproyecto jornadas de vacunación, 1982
12 Programa y informe de actividades en la República de Nicaragua--La Brigada Médica de la Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 1982
13 Documentos Básicos de Coordinación de la Cooperación Interagencial en Nicaragua, 1984
14 Informe sobre el Taller en Evaluación de la cooperación/solideridad en Nicaragua en salud, 1987
15 Análisis de la problematica de salud materno y infantil y la cooperación técnica de ops en Nicaragua, 1988
16 El Financiamiento del Sector Salud en Nicaragua: Desafíos para la Década de los Noventa, 1991
17 Records from Cuban physician Félix Sosa Mas, undated
Other materials
18 Articles in English about curative health care in Nicaragua, 1984-1989
19 Joe Sanderson diary digital images (original diary held at MUPI), undated

Mexican Catholic Apostolic Church, 1925-2009 (bulk 1925-1931)

4 Contemporary articles and news clippings
1 "The Present Dispute Between Mexico and the United States: Is Arbitration the Way Out?" by the National Student Federation of America, undated
2 "Why Our Church Calls Itself the Mexican Catholic Orthodox Apostolic Church" (English translation), by J. Joaquin Perez, M.L. Monge, and Angel Jimenez 1925
3 Constitución general de Igelsia Ortodoxa, Católica, Apostólica Mexicana, 1930
4 Iglesia Católica, Apostólica Mexicana--Hostia Sangrante, undated
5 News clippings, 1925
6 Clippings about and transcribed speeches by the Reverend Arthur J. Drossaerts, 1926-1933
7 News articles by Presbítero P. de Jhs. Ma. Robles, 1928, undated
8 Articles in "El Heraldo Mexicano," 1928-1929
Correspondence from the Archivio General de la Nación
9 Correspondence about Dr. Armin von Monte de Honor, 1929-1979
10 Correspondence about the Baptist inquiry into the Unión Nacionalista Mexicana, 1929
11 Correspondence about José Melgosa's application to the ICAM priesthood, 1927-1929
12 Correspondence about Francisco Durán's application to the ICAM priesthood, 1929
13 Correspondence about Dr. Antonio B. Lopez y Sierra, 1932
14 Correspondence about the Eastern Orthodox Church, 1927
15 Correspondence about the expulsion of Vicente Liñan, 1930-1931
16 Correspondence about Eduardo Dávila's confirmation as Patriarch, 1932
17 Correspondence about ICAM patriarchy and governance, 1932-1948
18 Correspondence about assorted ICAM topics, 1929-1932
19 Correspondence about the expulsion of José Emeterio Valdez, 1929
Scholarship on the Mexican church schism
20 "A History of the Apostolic Succession of Archbishop Rodriguez-Fairfield" by Reverend Paul Schultz, 1930
21 "El Cisma Mexicano" by Arnulfo Hurtado, 1956
22 "The Orthodox Church in Mexico" by Ramón Jacinto González, 1995
23 "Mysterious Way: Protestant Reformation in 19th Century Mexico" by Daniel Kirk, 2006
24 "God's Campesinos? Agrarismo and Mexico's Schismatic 'Revolutionary' Church" by Matthew Butler, 2009
25 Papers and accompanying notes on Mexican Apostolic Orthodox Catholic Church by K. Cheasty Anderson (Miller), undated
26 Biographical material, correspondence, and writing by and about Herbert P. Gambrell, 1925-2002, undated