The Benson Latin American Collection

Herschel Manuel Photographs, c.1928-1930.

Descriptive Summary

Creator Manuel, Herschel Thurman, b. 1887
Title Herschel Manuel Photographs
Dates: 1928-1930
Abstract 24 b/w photographs of Mexican American school children and segregated schools in the late 1920s.
OCLC Record No. 23168059
Extent 24 photographs
Language English
Repository Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin

Biographical Sketch

Professor and researcher Herschel Thurman Manuel was born Dec. 24, 1887 in Jackson County, Indiana. Manuel received his B.A. from DePauw Univ. in 1909, M.A. from Univ. of Chicago in 1914, and Ph.D. from Univ. of Illinois in 1917. He taught educational psychology at the Univ. of Texas beginning in 1925. In 1928, he received a grant to study the education of Mexican and Spanish-speaking children in Texas, which sparked a life-long interest in bilingual education. He developed standardized tests, including Inter-American Tests, which were parallel achievement tests in English and Spanish. Manuel died in 1976.

Scope and Contents Note

Consists of twenty-four black-and-white photographs of Mexican American school children, their segregated schools, and contrasting images of schools for other children. Photographs have minimal identification, but seem to be images of Texas schools and children in the late 1920's. The photographs were found among papers at the Office of Bilingual Education, University of Texas at Austin.


Access Restrictions


Use Restrictions

Standard copyright restrictions apply.

Index Terms

The Herschel Manuel Photographs are classified under the following Subject Headings in the University of Texas Libraries catalog:
Discrimination in education--Texas--Pictorial works
Mexican American children--Education--Texas
Public schools--Texas

Related Material

The Manuel (Herschel T.) Papers, 1944, may be found at the Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin.

Manuel's book The Education of Mexican and Spanish-speaking children in Texas (Austin: The Fund for Research in the Social Sciences, University of Texas, 1930) can be found in the Benson Collection at call number LA 370 M27. Other publications are also available.

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Cite as: Herschel Manuel Photographs, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas Libraries, the University of Texas at Austin.

Box and Folder Inventory

List of Photographs

box folder
1 1 1. Interior of Mexican school [shown in 2.]. Note windows without shades.
2. Mexican school in small city.
3. Interior of school [shown in 4.].
4. Mexican school in small former church building. Other white children of district are transported to city schools.
5. Mexican school in another district.
2 6. School for Mexican children.
7. School for other white children
8. School for other white children.
9. School for Mexican children of same community.
10. School for Mexican children.
11. School for other white children.
3 12. School for Mexican children - complete segregation.
13. Buildings for other white children.
14. School for other white children.
15. School for Mexican children. Interior was even worse.
16. School for Mexican children. Note playground.
17. School for other white children.
4 18. School for other whites.
19. Mexican school less than two blocks away.
20. A city Mexican school.
21. School for other whites in same city.
22. Rural school for other whites.
23. Mexican school - Valentine Day.
24. [School interior - with cake]