The Benson Latin American Collection

Agustín de Iturbide

An Inventory of His Collection at the Benson Latin American Collection

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824.
Title: Agustín de Iturbide Collection
Dates: 1813-1838
Dates (Bulk): 1821-1824
Abstract: Correspondence, official and other documents pertaining to Agustín Iturbide, first emperor of Mexico (1822-1823) and Mexican political and military affairs from 1813 to 1838.
OCLC Record No.: 31775745
Extent: 6 inches
Language: Spanish or Castilian
Repository: Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin

Biographical Note

First emperor of Mexico. Born 1783 in Valladolid (Morelia); executed July 19, 1824, in Padilla, Tamaulipas. Iturbide joined the army in 1800, by 1810 was fighting with the royalists, and by 1820 held the rank of colonel.

In February 1821 he and Vicente Guerrero signed the Plan de Iguala and created the Ejército Trigarante. In August 1821 Iturbide and viceroy Juan O'Donoju signed the Tratado de Córdoba, ending the war and giving Mexico independence. Iturbide was proclaimed emperor in May 1822 but by October was forced to dissolve the national Congress because of resistance from the opposition. In March 1823 he reinstated Congress, then abdicated and fled to Italy.

In April 1824 the Congress, having already declared his administration void, revoked his pension and declared Iturbide a traitor. When he returned to Mexico in July 1824 he was apprehended on arrival in Tamaulipas and executed the next day. In 1838 Anastasio Bustamante declared Iturbide one of the “First Heroes of Mexican Independence.”

1783 born in Valladolid (Morelia) to José Joaquín de Iturbide (wealthy Spaniard) and Josefa de Arámburu (Michoacan)
1798 became a field laborer
1800 enlisted as second lieutenant in Valladolid provincial regiment
1805 married Ana María de Huarte. Cantonment of Jalapa.
1809 Iturbide had some connection with conspiracy in Michelena, Valladolid
1810 offered rank of lieutenant general by Hidalgo, Iturbide refused. Participated in battle of Monte de las Cruces. Fought in battle of independence for royalist forces.
1816 accused but absolved on count of illicit operations
1820 Iturbide had become a colonel in the royalist army
1821 2/24 signed Plan de Iguala with Vicente Guerrero, created Ejército Trigarante
8/24 O'Donojú & Iturbide signed Tratado de Córdoba
9/27 Iturbide led Ejército Trigarante to victory?
1822 5/18 Iturbide proclaimed emporer
5/19 Iturbide emperorship ratified by congress
5/21 or 5/23 Iturbide crowned emperor
5/21 or 5/23 Created Order of Guadalupe. Iturbide had much resistance from primarily republicans, some liberals.
10/31 Iturbide dissolved congress
1823 1/24 Santa Anna incited rebellion with Plan de Casa Mata
3/19 Iturbide reinstated congress, abdicated
3/29 Iturbide & family left residence in Tacubaya. Sailed to Europe from Veracruz.
1824 8 Following arrival in Liorna, Italy, stayed at Villa Fournier.
1824 8 Went to Florence and England.
1824 4/8-28 Congress revoked pension, declared Iturbide a traitor
5/4 Iturbide left London for Mexico
6/14 arrived in Soto la Marina, Tamaulipas. Apprehended by Congress of Tamaulipas and sentenced to death.
6/19 Iturbide executed by firing squad in Padilla, Tamaulipas
1833 11/3 Santa Anna had Iturbide's remains brought to Mexico City & displayed/interred with the First heroes of Independence
1838 Anastasio Bustemante got Congress to decree, retrospectively, Iturbide as a First Hero of Independence

Scope and Contents

Correspondence, printed material, official documents, and literary productions pertaining to Iturbide and Mexican political and military affairs from 1813 to 1838. Included are items concerning Antonio López de Santa Anna, Anastasio Bustamante and José Manuel de Herrera.

The Archives subgroup includes correspondence (bulk 1821) relating mostly to Iturbide's activities as Generalísimo Almirante (correspondents include political leaders such as Vicente Guerrero and Antonio Medina) and printed material, mostly proclamations issued by Iturbide's government but including leaflets from the opposition as well as periodicals and broadsides from 1838 announcing Iturbide's status as a “First Hero of Mexican Independence.”

The Manuscripts subgroup comprises official documents including treaties and acts of Iturbide's government and of successor governments that relate to Iturbide (filed as G390); a photostat of a concordat between Iturbide and the Church (G406); a manuscript of Iturbide's memoir written in Italy, bound with leaflets and pamphlets relating to Iturbide (G414); and contemporary copies of letters from Juan Gómez Navarrete, Vicente Filisola, and José Dávila, among others (G388).

The materials are in Spanish.


Organized into two subgroups: I. Archives. II. Manuscripts.


Archives arranged chronologically; manuscripts arranged numerically.

Index Terms

Subjects (Persons)
Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824--Archives.
Bustamante, Anastasio, 1780-1853.
Davila, José.
Filisola, Vicente.
Gómez Navarrete, Juan Nepomuceno.
Guerrero, Vicente, 1782-1831.
Herrera, José Manuel de, 1776?-1831.
Medina, Antonio de, 1771-1827.
Santa Anna, Antonio López de, 1794?-1876.
Mexico--History--19th century.
Mexico--Politics and government--19th century.
Mexico--History, Military--19th century.

Related Material

García, Genaro, 1867-1920.Genaro García Collection, 15-- - 1920?, Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Agustín de Iturbide Collection, 1813-1838, Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.

Acquisitions Information

The Agustín de Iturbide Collection collection forms part of the Genaro García Collection, which was purchased by the University of Texas in 1921 from the heirs of Genaro García.

Processing Information

The collection was described by the Benson's Mexican Archives Project in December 1994.

Finding aid initially prepared by the Mexican Archives Project, January 6, 1995.

Alternate Form Available

The collection is also available on microfilm.

Other Finding Aids

The following guide is available in the Benson Latin American Collection Rare Books Reference: Castañeda, Carlos Eduardo, 1896-1958.Guide to the Latin American Manuscripts in the University of Texas Library.
Cambridge, Mass. :
Harvard University Press,

Detailed Description of the Collection

I. Archives

1. Correspondence, 1813-1823
2. Printed Materials, 1821-1838

II. Manuscripts

1. G388: Documentos relativos al Imperio de Iturbide (contemporary copies), 1821-1824
2. G390: Documentos históricos, Don Agustín Iturbide, 1821-1827
3. G406: Proposed concordat between the Empire of Iturbide and the Church, circa 1822
4. G414: Memoria escrita en Liorna a 27 de Sepbre. 1823, (ms. copy of Iturbide's memoirs). Bound with various pamphlets and leaftlets relating to Iturbide, 1823 September 27