University of Texas, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center

Radclyffe Hall and Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge:

An Inventory of Their Papers at the Harry Ransom Center



Descriptive Summary

Creator: Hall, Radclyffe, 1880-1943 and Troubridge, Una Vincenzo, Lady, 1887-1963
Title: Radclyffe Hall and Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge Papers
Dates: 1806-1962 (bulk 1912-1951), undated
Abstract: The papers of British novelist Radclyffe Hall and long-time partner British sculptor and translator Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge, contain Hall's manuscript works, including The Well of Loneliness (1928), the classic lesbian novel for which Hall is best known; Troubridge's voluminous diaries (131 volumes, 1930-1951); and correspondence with Evguenia Souline, the Russian nurse émigrée with whom Hall had a lengthy affair
Call Number: Manuscript Collection MS-01793
Extent: 50 document boxes, 2 oversize boxes (osb) (27.98 linear feet), 1 galley folder (gf)
Language: English
Repository: Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin

Biographical Sketch

Radclyffe Hall (1880-1943)

Marguerite Antonia Radclyffe-Hall was born on 12 August 1880 to Radclyffe Radclyffe-Hall (1846-1898) and Mary Jane Sager née Diehl (1854-1945); her parents soon separated and later divorced. Hall's mother married Alberto Visetti in 1890, and her father died when Hall was eighteen years old. Hall inherited the family fortune when she turned twenty-one.

After a period of travel and education, Hall published five books of poetry between 1906 and 1915. Self-identifying as a sexual "invert," Hall adopted a masculine appearance and the name John. Her first book of poems was published under the name Marguerite Radclyffe-Hall; the other four were attributed to Radclyffe-Hall. Her first novel, The Forge (1924), was published using the pseudonym of Radclyffe Hall, in which the surname hyphen was dropped. Her next novels included The Unlit Lamp (1924), A Saturday Life (1925), and the highly lauded Adam's Breed (1926). Hall became best known for her next novel, The Well of Loneliness (1928), a serious treatment of lesbianism that created great controversy and was banned in England until 1949. Her subsequent published works were The Master of the House (1932), a collection of short stories, Miss Ogilvy Finds Herself (1934), and The Sixth Beatitude (1936).

Hall's first lover, singer and society beauty Mabel Veronica Batten (1856-1916), introduced her into a circle of artistic and intellectual women, many of them lesbians. Batten's cousin, the sculptor and translator Una Troubridge (1887-1963), met Hall in 1915 and the two soon became lifelong partners. During the last nine years of her life, Hall had an affair with a Russian nurse named Evguenia Souline (1904-1958?), tolerated by Troubridge despite the unhappiness it caused her. Hall's literary output declined along with her faltering health in the early 1940s and she died on 7 October 1943 at the age of sixty-three.

Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge (1887-1963)

Born on 8 March 1887, Margot Elena Gertrude Taylor, generally known as Una Vincenzo, was one of two daughters of Captain Harry Ashworth Taylor (1855-1907) and Minna Gordon Handcock (1861-1947). Una was a talented artist and studied at the Royal College of Art, after which she set up a sculpture studio, and famously sculpted a bust of ballet dancer Vaslav Nijinsky in his role as the faun (1912). She married naval officer Sir Ernest Troubridge (1862-1926) in 1908, soon after the death of her father. The Troubridges had one daughter, Andrea, in 1910, but were separated by 1919 because of Una's relationship with Radclyffe Hall.

Una Troubridge was well-known for her numerous translations of works from French, Italian, and Russian into English, most notably introducing the French author Colette to an English audience. She also authored the biography The Life and Death of Radclyffe Hall (1961). After Radclyffe Hall's death, Una moved to Italy in 1949, where she became close friends with opera singer Nicola Rossi-Lemeni and his wife Virginia, and godmother to their son Alessandro. She died in Rome on 24 September 1963 aged seventy-six.

The brief biographical sketches above are intended to provide context for the names and works represented in these papers. Much more detailed information on the lives and works of Hall and Troubridge is available in the following sources.


Scope and Contents

The papers of British novelist Radclyffe Hall and long-time partner British sculptor and translator Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge, contain Hall's works in manuscript, including The Well of Loneliness (1928), the classic lesbian novel for which Hall is best known; Troubridge's voluminous diaries (131 volumes, 1930-1951); and correspondence with Evguenia Souline, the Russian nurse émigrée with whom Hall had a lengthy affair. Their combined papers include numerous handwritten and typed manuscripts, notebooks, biographical information, business correspondence, clippings, contracts, diaries, genealogical information, medical reports, photographs, piano-vocal scores, scrapbooks, and translations. The papers are arranged in four series: I. Radclyffe Hall, 1912-1939, undated (26 boxes); II. Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge, 1930-1962, undated (12 boxes); III. Additional Troubridge Diaries, 1943-1951 (8 boxes); IV. Additional Hall and Troubridge Papers, 1806, 1919-1944 (6 boxes).

These papers were purchased between 1960 and 1999: R242 (1960), R2467 (1965), R13774 (1996), and R14474 (1999). The largest group of papers was acquired in 1996. After Hall's death in 1943, this material remained in Troubridge's possession and was bequeathed to close friend Nicola Rossi-Lemeni when Troubridge died in 1963. These Hall and Troubridge papers now form Series I. and Series II. Additional Troubridge diaries acquired in 1999 make up Series III., while Series IV. comprises the earliest Hall and Troubridge papers acquired by the Ransom Center in 1960 and 1965.

The Hall and Troubridge Papers were previously described in three separate finding aids. The finding aids were created in 1997 (for R13774), 1999 (for R14474), and 2015 (converted card catalog descriptions for R242 and R2467). These descriptions have now been combined into this single finding aid. When present, pagination and dates for works have been added to the earlier descriptions, although the manuscripts written in notebooks are often unpaginated and undated. The approximate dates now given for some undated manuscripts were obtained from information by Sally Cline or Jana Funke.

With the exception of one item, the materials in Series I. and II. remain as originally numbered in boxes 1-37. The "Untitled handwritten and typescript drafts" located in folder 22.1 were treated for mold contamination and are now separately housed as folders 51.1-4. Series III. now occupies boxes 38-45 (previously numbered 1-8), and Series IV. now occupies boxes 46-50 and 52 (previously numbered 1-6).

Series I. Radclyffe Hall, 1912-1939, undated (boxes 1-25, 51)

Material for Radclyffe Hall is arranged in two subseries: A. Works, and B. Career and Personal Papers.

Works by Hall are arranged into three groups: Novels, followed by Short Stories and Sketches, and Other Works. The novels are arranged in alphabetical order by title and include both published and unpublished works. Chief among the published works is Adam's Breed (1926), which won the Femina Vie Heureuse prize and the James Tait Black Memorial Prize in 1927. Hall's best known work, The Well of Loneliness (1928), is well represented by notebooks and typescripts, along with papers related to the court case banning the book in Britain. Other published novels represented include The Forge (1924), The Master of the House (1932), A Saturday Life (1925), The Sixth Beatitude (1936), and The Unlit Lamp (1924). Unfinished and unpublished novels include The Cunningham Code, Emblem Hurlstone, Michael West, and an untitled work in which "Otfried Bergen" is the main character. A small amount of correspondence, usually of a research or business nature, is scattered throughout the works. Many of these letters were written on Hall's behalf by Troubridge.

Hall's published and unpublished Short Stories and Sketches are also arranged alphabetically. Several previously unpublished works in this group were published in 2016 (see The World and Other Unpublished Works of Radclyffe Hall, edited by Jana Funke). Filed before the stories is a notebook "List of stories sent to Miss Heath" referring to Audrey Heath, Hall's agent of many years. The individual titles in Hall's published volume of five short stories, Miss Ogilvy Finds Herself, are present along with sketches for two untitled works. Other works include untitled drafts, lectures, letters to the editor, drafts of memoirs, and poems. Several vocal scores are also present, arranged alphabetically.

Hall's Career and Personal Papers in Subseries B. include biographical material written by Hall, scrapbooks containing clippings covering the Adam's Breed awards and the notoriety of The Well of Loneliness, and contracts for published works with related correspondence. Hall and Troubridge's love of animals and their dog breeding avocation are documented in newspaper clippings of dog shows, kennel registrations, and photographs. In addition, a photograph album belonging to Hall's father and Hall's writing portfolio are also present.

Series II. Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge, 1930-1962, undated (boxes 26-37)

Una Troubridge's papers are arranged in two subseries: A. Works and B. Other Papers. The Works subseries is arranged in three groups, as Diaries, Daybooks, and Writings. Materials in Subseries B. Other Papers include correspondence, a photo album and other photographs, a scrapbook, a family tree, and a manuscript by Vernon Lee.

The works are dominated by Troubridge's 60-volume set of diaries written from the last days of 1930 to June 21, 1943, just months before Hall's death. Troubridge writes in the first entry "I have determined, after many years of intermission, to keep a diary of sorts in order to supplement the daybooks that I have kept regularly for sixteen years. In these I can and do state merely the facts of our daily engagements, John's and mine, and there is no room for any detail such as might later be amusing to re-read and remember." These books chronicle the day-to-day activities of Hall and Troubridge, documenting everything from mundane weather reports to details of significant events. Written mostly from their home in Rye, Sussex, they also cover other locations during their travels, especially Italy. The diaries are supplemented by four of Troubridge's daybooks for the years 1934, 1935, 1941, and 1942 that provide the briefer daily information Troubridge entered in a printed yearly desk- or appointment-type diary. Troubridge's writings in this series include handwritten notebooks on various topics, drafts and galley proofs of The Life and Death of Radclyffe Hall published in 1961, and translations of works by Colette and Matilde Serao.

Subseries B. contains correspondence between Evguenia Souline and Troubridge, primarily dating between 1950 and 1951. These letters describe Souline's continual requests for financial assistance in addition to an annual annuity. Correspondence between Troubridge and solicitor Harold Rubinstein detail Troubridge's monetary outlays to Souline and other financial standings. Of importance is a letter "To the Executors of my Will" written by Troubridge in February 1944 and revised in September 1944 regarding the nature of Troubridge and Hall's relationship with Souline and instructions for the destruction of Troubridge's diaries. A letter from Home Secretary J. Chuter Ede, written in 1946 in response to Troubridge's request for permission to publish a memorial edition of The Well of Loneliness, states that republishing the book could invite court proceedings. Also present are two letters from Troubridge's daughter, Andrea Turnbull, written in approximately 1950 from Ethiopia.

The remainder of this subseries includes photographs of Una and husband Ernest Troubridge as children and as newlyweds, and of their daughter Andrea as a child. The history of Una's family, the Taylors, is documented in a scrapbook and a Taylor family tree. Also present is a bound handwritten manuscript "The Wicked Voice" by Vernon Lee (pseudonym of Violet Paget) from the library of Hugh Walpole.

Series III. Additional Troubridge Diaries, 1943-1951 (boxes 38-45, formerly numbered 1-8)

This series contains 71 diaries that date from 1943 to 1951, a continuation of the earlier Troubridge diaries located in Series II. Beginning on December 11, 1943 and ending on January 21, 1951, Troubridge wrote these diary entries in the form of letters to Radclyffe Hall, who had died on October 7, 1943. The diaries cover the events surrounding Hall's death, Hall's will, Troubridge's unsuccessful attempt to get The Well of Loneliness published in Britain in 1946, move to Italy, and friendship there with Romaine Brooks. Volume numbers 1, 2, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 51, and 53 were not acquired and are known to be missing.

Series IV. Additional Hall and Troubridge Papers, 1806, 1919-1944 (boxes 46-50, 52, formerly numbered 1-6)

This material represents the Ransom Center's earliest Hall and Troubridge acquisitions, which were previously cataloged in a card catalog. Please see the explanatory note at the end of this finding aid for information regarding the arrangement of the manuscripts as well as the abbreviations commonly used in descriptions. The papers are divided into three subseries: A. Works, B. Letters, and C. Miscellaneous. Hall's works include one poem and two typescripts for The Sixth Beatitude. A small number of letters to Jane Caruth and Winifred Macy join over 500 letters Hall wrote to Evguenia Souline from 1934 to 1942 during the course of their long affair. Also present are more than 60 letters from Troubridge to Souline, 1934-1942, two medical reports for Hall, and an 1806 genealogy of the Radclyffe family.

Condition

Some materials in Series I. and II. are extensively water damaged, suffering rust and mold deterioration. Readers are asked to employ caution in using fragile material in the collection. Three items that suffered mold damage were vacuum treated, but mold may still be present. For health reasons, patrons may consider wearing gloves and a dust/mist respirator while handling these items (folders 14.4-15.1, 33.4, and 51.1-4).


Restrictions

Access:

Open for research. Researchers must create an online Research Account and agree to the Materials Use Policy before using archival materials. Some materials are extensively water damaged, suffering rust and mold deterioration. Readers are asked to employ caution in using fragile material in the collection. Three items that suffered mold damage were vacuum treated, but mold may still be present. For health reasons, patrons may consider wearing gloves and a dust/mist respirator while handling these items.

The Radclyffe Hall and Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge Papers are being digitized during a CLIR-funded project now in progress through May 2021. While the project is underway, the papers will be sent in groups for digitization. While in the Digitization Lab, each group of papers will be temporarily unavailable to researchers. Please contact Ransom Center staff for questions about availability.

Use Policies:

Ransom Center collections may contain material with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations. Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in the collections without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the Ransom Center and The University of Texas at Austin assume no responsibility.

Restrictions on Use:

Authorization for publication is given on behalf of the University of Texas as the owner of the collection and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder which must be obtained by the researcher. For more information please see the Ransom Center's Open Access and Use Policies.


Index Terms

People
Hall, Radclyffe.
Souline, Evguenia, 1904-1958?
Troubridge, Una Vincenzo, Lady, 1887-1963.
Subjects
Authors, English -- 20th century.
Censorship -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
English fiction -- 20th century.
Feminism in literature.
Gender identity.
Gender-nonconforming people.
Lesbianism in literature.
Lesbians -- Great Britain -- History -- 20th century.
Lesbians' writings, English.
Prohibited books.
Sexual orientation.
Transgender people.
Women and literature -- England -- History -- 20th century.
Women authors, English -- 20th century.
Document Types
Contracts.
Correspondence.
Diaries.
Love letters.
Manuscripts (documents).
Photograph albums.
Photographs.
Scores (documents for music).
Scrapbooks.
Translations (documents).

Related Material

Additional Hall and Troubridge manuscripts are located in several other Ransom Center collections:

  • Alec Craig Collection: 2 ALS Troubridge, Una to Craig, 1936. Written on behalf of Radclyffe Hall. (folder 1.10)
  • Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Records: 2 TLS Hall, Radclyffe to Knopf, Alfred A., 1928 (folder 501.6); 2 ALS Hall, Radclyffe to Knopf, Blanche, 1928 (folder 691.8)
  • British Sexological Society Records: ALS Hall, Radclyffe to British Sexological Society, 1933 (folder 6.14); 5 ALS, 2 TLS Hall, Radclyffe to Ives, George, 1928-1931. 4 written and signed by Una Troubridge, plus one clipping re Well of Loneliness. (folder 22.8)
  • Golden Cockerel Press Collection: TccL to Hall, Radclyffe, 1934. Included with this: ALS Una Troubridge to Owen Rutter. (folder 1.2)
  • Havelock Ellis Collection: 9 ALS, 3 TLS Hall, Radclyffe to Ellis, Havelock, 1928-1930. Included with this: mimeo LS / copy from Director of Public Prosecution to Rubinstein Nash Solicitors; ANS Radclyffe Hall written on copy. (folder 7.6)
  • J. L. (James Louis) Garvin Papers: ALS Hall, Radclyffe to Garvin, J. L., 1928 (folder 52.7)
  • John Lane Company Records: ALS Hall, Radclyffe to John Lane, illegible year (folder 19.1)
  • Morris Leopold Ernst Papers: Hall, Radclyffe. TmsS statement, 6 pages, 10 September 1930. Concerns dramatization of Well of Loneliness by Dorothea Fassett of the London Play Company. Each page is signed by Radclyffe Hall. (folder 235.6)
  • PEN (Organization) Records: 3 ALS Hall, Radclyffe to PEN, 1928-1931 (folder 22.3); ALS Troubridge, Una to PEN (C. A. Dawson Scott), 1927 (folder 70.6)
  • Rupert Croft-Cooke Collection (no online finding aid): ALS Troubridge, Una to Croft-Cooke, Rupert, 1960 (folder Recipient Ti-Tz)
  • William A. Bradley Literary Agency Records: TLS Hall, Radclyffe to Bradley, William, 1929 (folder 30.7); ANI Troubridge, Una to unidentified recipient, undated (folder 62.5)

Substantial Hall and Troubridge holdings are located in the Lovat Dickson fonds at Library and Archives Canada; the materials have been microfilmed and a digital version of the microfilm is available online. Other known Hall and/or Troubridge holdings are located in various collections at these repositories:


Separated Material

The Ransom Center Library holds 29 books formerly owned by Radclyffe Hall and or Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge. A copy of The Well of Loneliness given to Home Secretary J. Chuter Ede by Troubridge in July 1946 also contains a list of "those who opposed its suppression" written by Hall on the flyleaf. A copy of The Unlit Lamp contains handwritten revisions to Chapter 29. A 1929 letter to Radclyffe Hall from English gynecologist and surgeon Mary Scharlieb is tipped into a copy of Yet a More Excellent Way. Several copies of Hall's works are inscribed to Evguenia Souline.

The Radclyffe Hall Literary File in the Photography Collection consists of 35 photographic prints (27 loose prints and 8 prints in an album), including portraits of Hall and views of Hall's home.

The Vertical File Collection contains three folders for Radclyffe Hall: Criticism, Biographical information, and Miscellaneous.


Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Radclyffe Hall and Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge Papers (Manuscript Collection MS-01793). Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin.

Acquisition:

Purchases, 1960-1999 (R242, R2467, R13774, R14474)

Processed by:

Liz Murray, 1977; Dale Sauter and Liz Murray, 1999; Apryl Voskamp and Joan Sibley, 2015; three earlier finding aids combined and revised, Joan Sibley, 2019


Sources:

Baker, Michael. "Hall, Marguerite Antonia Radclyffe-[pseud. Radclyffe Hall], novelist," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 18 June 2019.

Baker, Michael. Our Three Selves: The Life of Radclyffe Hall. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1985.

Cline, Sally. Radclyffe Hall: A Woman Called John. London: J. Murray, 1997.

Dellamora, Richard. Radclyffe Hall: A Life in the Writing. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

Dickson, Lovat. Radclyffe Hall at the Well of Loneliness: A Sapphic Chronicle. London: Collins, 1975.

Funke, Jana, editor. The World and Other Unpublished Works of Radclyffe Hall. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2016.

Glasgow, Joanne, editor. Your John: The Love Letters of Radclyffe Hall, New York: New York University Press, 1997.

March, Kathy. "Radclyffe Hall," Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol. 191, 1998.

Ormrod, Richard. Una Troubridge: The Friend of Radclyffe Hall. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1985.

Souhami, Diana. The Trials of Radclyffe Hall. New York: Doubleday, 1999.

Troubridge, Una Vincenzo, Lady. The Life and Death of Radclyffe Hall. London: Hammond, Hammond, 1961.


Container List

Series I. Radclyffe Hall, 1912-1939, undated

Subseries A. Works, 1919-1939, undated
Novels:
Adams's Breed (published 1926; originally titled Food)
Container
1.1 Correspondence and research material, 1925
Handwritten notebooks, various topics:
Container
1.2 "Notes re: Food (very important)"
Container
1.3 Two untitled notebooks
Handwritten notebooks, book text:
Container
1.4 Book I (Book 1, Chapter 1 to Chapter 9)
Container
1.5 Book II (Book 1, Chapter 10 to Book 2, Chapter 5)
Container
2.1 Book III (Book 2, Chapter 5 to Book 3, Chapter 4)
Container
2.2 Book IV (Book 3, Chapter 4 to Chapter 10)
Container
2.3 Book V (Book 3, Chapter 10 to Epilogue)
Container
2.4 The New Forest, handwritten and typescript drafts, related to last chapters of the book
The Cunningham Code (approximately 1906-1923):
Container
2.5 Handwritten notebook, The Cunningham Family; for last chapter, see handwritten notebook for A Saturday Life, folder 8.2
Container
2.6 Typescript, publisher's copy, 47 pages; two other copies, 33, 34 pages
Container
3.1-3 Emblem Hurlstone, four handwritten notebooks, manuscript fragments
Container
3.4-6 The Forge (published 1924), corrected typescript, "copy to keep," 401 pages
The Master of the House (published 1932; originally titled The Carpenter's Son):
Container
4.1 Handwritten and typescript notes, fragments
Handwritten notebooks:
Container
4.2 "Ideas for end -- For my Una"
Container
4.3 Notes on Colonel X (Colonel Emile Prévost)
Container
4.4 "Notes," with additional inserted notes and correspondence with Harry Treacher, 1929-1930
Container
4.5 Questions re: Colonel X
Text, complete set:
Container
4.6 Vol. I (Chapter 1 to Chapter 5)
Container
5.1 Vol. II (Chapter 5 to Chapter 9)
Container
5.2 Vol. III (Chapter 10 to Chapter 14)
Container
5.3 Vol. IV (Chapter 14 to Chapter 19)
Container
5.4 Vol. V (Chapter 19 to Chapter 25)
Container
5.5 Vol. VI (Chapter 25 to Chapter 30)
Container
6.1 Vol. VII (Chapter 31 to Chapter 35)
Container
6.2 Vol. VIII (Chapter 35 to Chapter 38)
Container
6.3 Vol. IX (Chapter 39 to Chapter 40)
Text, discrete volumes:
Container
6.4 Chapter 38 to Chapter 39
Container
6.5 Vol. IX (Chapter 39 to Chapter 42)
Container
7.1-4 Corrected typescript, "own top copy," 667 pages; followed by letter from A. F. Becke to Troubridge, 1930; typed copy of letter from Havelock Ellis to Brandt re writing foreword for The Well of Loneliness, 9 February 1928
Michael West (approximately 1915):
Container
7.5-6 Handwritten notebooks, Books I-II
Container
8.1 Handwritten manuscript "Michael West by John Radclyffe"
A Saturday Life (published 1925):
Handwritten notebooks:
Container
8.2 One notebook: opening pages, together with last chapter of The Cunningham Code
Container
8.3 One notebook: Chapter 2 to Chapter 7 (i.e., Chapter 8 in published version)
Container
8.4 Four notebooks: Chapter 7 (i.e., 8) section 4 to Chapter 15 (i.e., 16)
Container
8.5 One notebook: Chapter 16 (i.e., 17) to Chapter 31
Container
8.6-7 Typescript, "own copy," 354 pages
The Sixth Beatitude (published 1936; see folders 46.2-3 for typescripts):
Container
9.1 One handwritten notebook: Notes
Container
9.2-3 Two handwritten notebooks: Text, Vols. I-II
The Unlit Lamp (published 1924; originally titled Octopi):
Handwritten notebooks:
Container
9.4 One notebook: Book I, Chapter 1 to Book II, Chapter 1, with single leaf in Troubridge's hand
Container
9.5 One notebook: Book II, Chapter 2 to Chapter 9
Container
9.6 One notebook: Book II, Chapter 10 to Book III, Chapter 2
Container
9.7 Two notebooks; Book III, Chapter 3 to Chapter 10
Container
10.1 One notebook: Book IV, Chapter 12 to Chapter 16; NB: first part of Book IV is not present
Container
10.2 One notebook: Book V, Chapter 1 to Chapter 6
Container
10.3 One notebook: Book V, Chapter 6 to Chapter 10
Typescript, "as originally written; complete":
Container
10.4 Books 1-2, pages 1-246
Container
10.5 Book 3, pages 247-403
Container
10.6 Book 4, pages 404-521
Container
10.7 Book 5, pages 522-614
Container
11.1-5 Corrected typescript, uncut copy, Books 1-5, 560 pages
Container
11.6, 12.1-3 Uncorrected typescript, "uncut copy," 559 pages; "to be kept by Miss Heath" (i.e., Audrey Heath, Hall's agent)
The Well of Loneliness (published 1928):
Container
12.4 Handwritten manuscript, Chapters 9-13
Handwritten notebooks, discrete volumes:
Container
12.5 One notebook: Notes, including section titled Paris; and on sexual inversion
Container
12.6 One notebook: Draft of Chapter 3 and, at opposite end, notes re: Passage Choiseul
Container
12.7 One notebook: Chapter notes and drafts of Chapters 3-5
Handwritten notebooks, text (irregular sequence):
Container
13.1 One notebook: Vol. I, Chapters 1-3
Container
13.2 One notebook: Vol. I, Chapters 5-9
Container
13.3 One notebook: Vol. II, Chapters 8-22
Container
13.4 One notebook: Vol. III, Chapters 21-30
Container
13.5 One notebook: Vol. IV, Chapters 30-34, lined through version of Book IV, Chapter 1, followed by Chapter 35 and then Chapter 26
Container
14.1 One notebook: Vol. V, Chapters 26-44
Container
14.2 One notebook: Vol. VI, Chapters 44-51
Container
14.3 One notebook: Vol. VII, Chapters 51-56
Typescripts:
Container
14.4, 15.1 "First copy," 768 pages. This item was exposed to moisture and suffered mold damage. It has been vacuum treated, but mold may still be present. For health reasons, patrons may consider wearing gloves and a dust/mist respirator while handling this item.
Container
15.2-3, 16.1-2 "Office, third copy," 768 pages
Container
16.3-5, 17.1 "Own duplicate copy," 769 pages
Container
17.2 Pegasus Press (Paris), publication announcement and order form, 1928
Container
17.3 Material related to court case, 1928-1934
Container
17.4 Daily Herald article quoting Home Secretary, Sir William Joynson-Hicks, December 11, 1928
Container
17.5 Scotland Yard and The Well of Loneliness, typescript, 96 pages, April 1929; documents the suppression of The Well in England
Container
17.6-8 Untitled (character Otfried Bergen), three handwritten notebooks, 1939, undated
Short Stories and Sketches:
Container
18.1 List of stories sent to Miss Heath (Audrey Heath)
Container
18.2 The Blossoms, two corrected typescripts, 25 pages, 26 pages, approximately 1915; see also folder 20.10
Container
18.3-4 Bonaparte, handwritten notebook; two typescripts, 21 pages, 31 pages, approximately 1914
Container
18.5 The Career of Mark Anthony Brakes, two typescripts, 22 pages each, approximately 1914-1915; see also folder 20.9
Container
18.6 The Faith of Father Dearing, handwritten notebook
Container
18.7 The Gardens, typescript, 8 pages; see also folder 51.2
Container
18.8 Ghosts, handwritten notebook
Container
18.9 The Grave, typescript, 7 pages
Container
18.10 The Legend of Saint Ethelflaeda, handwritten manuscript; three typescripts, 12 pages each
Container
18.11 Like Cures Like, two typescripts, 22 pages, 20 pages
Container
18.12 Miles, three typescripts, 18 pages each, approximately 1924-1925
Miss Ogilvy Finds Herself (five short stories, published 1934):
Container
19.1 Miss Ogilvy Finds Herself, handwritten manuscript fragments, including one draft approximately 1926; one typescript, 34 pages
The Lover of Things:
Container
19.2 Handwritten manuscript, 29 pages; corrected typescript 103 pages; and printed tearsheets, pages 607-628
Container
19.3 Two handwritten notebooks
Container
19.4 Fräulein Schwartz, typescript, 41 pages; see also folders 20.11, 21.1-4
The Rest Cure, typescript, 21 pages; see also folder 51.4
Upon the Mountains, typescript, 43 pages
Container
20.1 The Modern Miss Thompson, handwritten notebook, approximately 1915
Container
20.2 Out of the Night, two typescripts, 33 pages each
Container
20.3 Panic, handwritten notebook
Container
20.4 The Pictures, typescript, 6 pages
Container
20.5 Poor Miss Briggs (originally titled Teneriffe and an Incident), two typescripts, 30 pages each; 2 typescripts, 37 pages each, approximately 1915; see also folders 20.9 and 22.1 (now 51.4)
Container
20.6 The Rechording Angle (The Recording Angel), handwritten notebook
Container
20.7 The Scarecrow, typescript, 11 pages, approximately 1924-1925
Two Poets and a Pretty Woman (approximately 1915):
Container
20.8 Handwritten notebook, together with The White Sail (in The Forgotten Island?)
Container
20.9 Handwritten notebook, together with poems from The Forgotten Island
The White Sail -- see folder 20.8
Container
20.10 The Woman in the Crepe Bonnet, handwritten notebook, 23 pages; see later version The Blossoms, folder 18.2
The World (originally devised as a novel, started approximately 1924-1925; episode published 1934 as short story Fräulein Schwartz in collection titled Miss Ogilvy Finds Herself; see also folders 19.1, 20.3):
Container
20.11 Two typescripts, 128 pages, 113 pages
Container
21.1-4 Typescript fragments and publisher's copies, 113 pages, 113 pages, two 43 pages each, 94 pages
Container
21.5 Youth, 1914-1918 (A Period Piece), handwritten notebook together with Troubridge's daybook entries for June 2 to June 21, 1919
Untitled:
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21.6 Malise Gordon, handwritten notebook, approximately 1926
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21.7-8 Paul Colet, 2 handwritten notebooks, typescript, 31 pages, approximately 1934
Other Works:
Untitled handwritten and typescript drafts; formerly folder 22.1, removed to separate box 51 after conservation treatment completed in 2019. This item was exposed to moisture and suffered mold damage. It has been vacuum treated, but mold may still be present. For health reasons, patrons may consider wearing gloves and a dust/mist respirator while handling this item. Contents listed below kept in their original order:
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51.1 Untitled typescript (mentions canary Gabriele D'Annuzio, dog Wotan, parrot Kama), pages numbered 1-10; continues with single page (11) in next folder stuck to first page of The Holiday
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51.2 The Holiday (character names William and Una), handwritten manuscript, page gatherings numbered 1-11
Untitled handwritten manuscript for The Gardens, 11 unnumbered leaves
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51.3 Two and One: Comedy in 3 Acts "good copy," handwritten manuscript, page gatherings numbered 1-7, 1-5; 6 stuck to first page of next item in folder
Unidentified handwritten manuscript fragment (mentions name Rodger Briscome), 5 unnumbered pages
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51.4 Miss Briggs, handwritten manuscript fragment, pages numbered 1, 2, 8
The Rest Cure -- 1932, handwritten manuscript, pages numbered 1-18
Unidentified handwritten manuscript fragment (re singing or songs?), 3 pages
Untitled typescript (To understand the spiritual assistance that is being meted out to the world by our Monastic Communities… ), 3 pages ; appears to be text of following letter to the editor
Letter to the editor, Michael de la Bédoyère, Catholic Herald, handwritten, 2 pages
Unidentified handwritten manuscript fragment (memoir?), 2 pages
Original envelope noting previous contents as "Old preface; corrected preface; extracts from letters, letter editor Sphere re"
Lectures and letters to the editor:
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22.2 American Authors in England, 3 typescripts, 9 pages, two 13 pages each
The First Night, 2 typescripts, 8 pages each
Golf and Marriage, typescript, 4 pages
Why I Wrote Adam's Breed, typescript, 7 pages, approximately 1927
League for Prevention of Cruel Sports, typescript, 2 pages
Symposium on A Summer's Day Book I Remember, typescript, 2 pages
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22.3 The Writing of Novels, typescript, 47 pages, 1933; read to The English Club, Oxford and to The Literary Society, University College, University of London
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22.4-5 Memoirs also titled Forebears and Infancy, three notebooks and handwritten fragments
Poems:
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23.1 Greek Poems, handwritten notebook, includes poems no. 33 and no. 34 from The Forgotten Island (published 1915); see also folders 20.9, 46.1
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23.2 Poems by M. R. H., bound handwritten manuscript
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23.3 Canary Island Songs, two notebooks written in several hands
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23.4 Two notebooks containing similar poems
Vocal scores for piano:
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23.5 Clarissa's Wedding Day
Forsaken
My ladye wore a gown of blue
A new set of English madrigals
On Clarissa Chiding
The road to Ledbury (from Songs of Three Counties, 1913?)
Where are you Hiding?
Why so Cold?
Why so Cold, Dearling?
Little Lambkins
Subseries B. Career and Personal Papers, 1912-1938, undated
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24.1 Biographical material, handwritten manuscript and typescripts
Scrapbooks:
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24.2 Adam's Breed and awards, 1927-1928
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24.3 Banning of The Well of Loneliness, 1928
Contracts for novels and short stories, with related correspondence, 1912-1938:
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24.4 Adam's Breed, 1925-1933
The Master of the House, 1930-1935
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24.5 A Saturday Life, 1924-1933
The Sixth Beatitude, 1935-1936
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24.6 The Unlit Lamp, 1924-1934
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24.4 The Well of Loneliness, 1928-1938
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24.5 The Well of Loneliness, 1930-1932?; also includes The Forge, 1923; Miss Ogilvy Finds Herself, 1933-1934; Poems, 1912-1914
Dog-related material:
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25.1 Clippings, dog shows, 1922-1923
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25.2 Kennel Club registration certificates, 1914-1926
Photographs:
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25.3 Radclyffe-Hall, Radclyffe, 1846–1898. Photograph album of Hall's father
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25.4 Dog photographs
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25.5 Hall and Troubridge with their animals
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25.6 Travel information on Middle East
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25.7 Writing portfolio, leather, with initials R. H.



Series II. Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge, 1930-1962, undated

Subseries A. Works, 1930-1962, undated
Diaries:
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26.1 Vol. 1, December 27, 1930 to Feb. 24, 1931
Vol. 2, February 24, 1931 to April 18, 1931
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26.2 Vol. 3, April 18, 1931 to June 11, 1931
Vol. 4, June 13, 1931 to July 30, 1931
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26.3 Vol. 5, July 30, 1931 to September 17, 1931
Vol. 6, September 17, 1931 to October 31, 1931
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26.4 Vol. 7, October 31, 1931 to January 4, 1932
Vol. 8, January 5, 1932 to February 28, 1932
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27.1 Vol. 9, February 29, 1932 to April 21, 1932
Vol. 10, April 21, 1932 to July 27, 1932
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27.2 Vol. 11, July 27, 1932 to October 7, 1932
Vol. 12, October 9, 1932 to December 11, 1932
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27.3 Vol. 13, December 11, 1932 to February 15, 1933
Vol. 14, February 15, 1933 to April 12, 1933
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27.4 Vol. 15, April 13, 1933 to June 13, 1933
Vol. 16, June 14, 1933 to August 1, 1933
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28.1 Vol. 17, August 2, 1933 to October 8, 1933
Vol. 18, October 8, 1933 to December 4, 1933
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28.2 Vol. 19, December 5, 1933 to January 24, 1934
Vol. 20, January 24, 1934 to March 31, 1934
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28.3 Vol. 21, April 1, 1934 to June 14, 1934
Vol. 22, June 14, 1934 to October 9, 1934
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28.4 Vol. 23, October 10, 1934 to January 21, 1935
Vol. 24, January 21, 1935 to April 12, 1935
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29.1 Vol. 25, April 13, 1935 to June 16, 1935
Vol. 26, June 16, 1935 to August 26, 1935
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29.2 Vol. 27, August 27, 1935 to September 17, 1935
Vol. 28, September 20, 1935 to December 15, 1935
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29.3 Vol. 29, December 16, 1935 to February 29, 1936
Vol. 30, March 1, 1936 to May 12, 1936
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29.4 Vol. 31, May 12, 1936 to July 15, 1936
Vol. 32, July 15, 1936 to September 14, 1936
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29.5 Vol. 33, September 14, 1936 to December 4, 1936
Vol. 34, December 5, 1936 to March 17, 1937
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30.1 Vol. 35, March 18, 1937 to May 30, 1937
Vol. 36, May 30, 1937 to July 28, 1937
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30.2 Vol. 37, July 28, 1937 to October 17, 1937
Vol. 38, October 18, 1937 to February 8, 1938
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30.3 Vol. 39, February 9, 1938 to May 23, 1938
Vol. 40, May 23, 1938 to July 18, 1938
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30.4 Vol. 41, July 18, 1938 to October 19, 1938
Vol. 42, October 19, 1938 to January 27, 1939
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31.1 Vol. 43, January 27, 1939 to April 5, 1939
Vol. 44, April 7, 1939 to June 18, 1939
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31.2 Vol. 45, June 21, 1939 to July 4, 1939
Vol. 46, July 5, 1939 to September 20, 1939
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31.3 Vol. 47, September 20, 1939 to January 14, 1940
Vol. 48, January 15, 1940 to May 2, 1940
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31.4 Vol. 49, May 3, 1940 to September 21, 1940
Vol. 50, September 22, 1940 to March 1, 1941
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31.5 Vol. 51, March 2, 1941 to June 5, 1941
Vol. 52, June 6, 1941 to July 28, 1941
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32.1 Vol. 53, July 28, 1941 to October 8, 1941
Vol. 54, October 9, 1941 to January 16, 1942
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32.2 Vol. 55, January 17, 1942 to April 23, 1942
Vol. 56, April 25, 1942 to July 29, 1942
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32.3 Vol. 57, July 29, 1942 to October 15, 1942
Vol. 58, October 15, 1942 to December 11, 1942
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32.4 Vol. 59, December 11, 1942 to February 5, 1943
Vol. 60, February 6, 1943 to June 21, 1943
Daybooks:
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33.1 1934
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33.2 1935
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33.3 1941
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33.4 1942. This item was exposed to moisture and suffered mold damage. It has been vacuum treated, but mold may still be present. For health reasons, patrons may consider wearing gloves and a dust/mist respirator while handling this item.
Entries for June 2 to June 21, 1919 – see folder 21.5
Writings:
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34.1 Untitled handwritten notebook, various topics including a thumbnail sketch of Sir Winston Churchill and Admiral Sir Ernest Troubridge written in 1962, and brief entries on Nijinsky, Nicola Rossi-Lemeni, and Gabriele D'Annunzio
Life and Death of Radclyffe Hall (published 1961):
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34.2 Biography of Radclyffe Hall, two handwritten notebooks
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34.3 Carbon typescript draft, 109 pages
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34.4 Corrected typescript, ribbon copy, 212 pages
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gf 1 Galley proofs, 64 sheets
Translations:
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34.5 Notes on Colette by Troubridge
Colette, 1873-1954; approximately 1926 or later:
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34.6 Paris from My Window, 3 handwritten notebooks
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35.1 Sido, typescript, 81 pages
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35.2 Three...Six...Nine, 3 handwritten notebooks
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35.3-4 Serao, Matilde, 1856-1927. Sister Giovanna of the Cross (Suor Giovanna della Croce, published 1901), five handwritten notebooks and partial typescript, 30 pages
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35.5-6 Unidentified work (history of Spain in the 1500's concerning Philip I and Don Carlos), incomplete set of three handwritten notebooks, Books II-IV
Subseries B. Other Papers, 1950-1957, undated
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36.6 Lee, Vernon, 1856-1935 (aka Violet Paget). The Wicked Voice, bound handwritten manuscript, about 70 pages
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36.4 Taylor family. Genealogy
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36.3 Taylor family. Scrapbook with clippings, drawings, letters, and photographs, including several of Una Troubridge and sister Viola; also several drawings and two letters by Philip Burne-Jones (1861-1926)
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37 (osb) Troubridge family. Photograph album, including baby and toddler pictures of daughter Andrea Turnbull with Una Troubridge
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36.1 Troubridge, Una Vincenzo, Lady, 1887-1963. Correspondence with solicitors, executors, Evguenia Souline, and daughter Andrea Turnbull, 1950-1957
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36.2 Troubridge, Una Vincenzo, Lady, 1887-1963. Studio portraits



Series III. Additional Troubridge Diaries, 1943-1951

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38.1 Vol. 3, December 11, 1943 to January 3, 1944
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38.2 Vol. 4, January 4, 1944 to January 31, 1944
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38.3 Vol. 5, January 31, 1944 to February 21, 1944
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38.4 Vol. 6, February 21, 1944 to March 17, 1944
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38.5 Vol. 7, March 17, 1944 to April 12, 1944
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38.6 Vol. 8, April 12, 1944 to May 1, 1944
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38.7 Vol. 9, May 2, 1944 to May 24, 1944
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38.8 Vol. 10, May 25, 1944 to June 13, 1944
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38.9 Vol. 11, June 14, 1944 to July 5, 1944
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39.1 Vol. 12, July 6, 1944 to July 29, 1944
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39.2 Vol. 13, July 29, 1944 to August 21, 1944
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39.3 Vol. 17, October 24, 1944 to November 11, 1944
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39.4 Vol. 18, November 11, 1944 to December 1, 1944
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39.5 Vol. 21, February 16, 1945 to April 14, 1945
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39.6 Vol. 22, April 15, 1945 to June 2, 1945
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39.7 Vol. 23, June 2, 1945 to June 28, 1945
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39.8 Vol. 24, June 28, 1945 to July 17, 1945
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40.1 Vol. 25, July 17, 1945 to August 12, 1945
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40.2 Vol. 26, August 12, 1945 to September 9, 1945
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40.3 Vol. 27, September 9, 1945 to September 30, 1945
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40.4 Vol. 28, September 30, 1945 to October 10, 1945
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40.5 Vol. 29, October 10, 1945 to November 6, 1945
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40.6 Vol. 30, November 6, 1945 to November 26, 1945
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40.7 Vol. 31, November 26, 1945 to December 20, 1945
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40.8 Vol. 32, December 20, 1945 to February 5, 1946
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41.1 Vol. 33, February 6, 1946 to March 5, 1946
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41.2 Vol. 34, March 5, 1946 to May 6, 1946
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41.3 Vol. 35, May 6, 1946 to May 26, 1946
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41.4 Vol. 36, May 27, 1946 to June 26, 1946
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41.5 Vol. 37, June 26, 1946 to August 11, 1946
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41.6 Vol. 38, August 11, 1946 to September 25, 1946
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41.7 Vol. 39, September 26, 1946 to November 13, 1946
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41.8 Vol. 40, November 16, 1946 to January 6, 1947
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42.1 Vol. 41, January 6, 1947 to February 19, 1947
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42.2 Vol. 42, February 20, 1947 to April 11, 1947
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42.3 Vol. 43, April 11, 1947 to May 8, 1947
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42.4 Vol. 44, May 8, 1947 to June 4, 1947
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42.5 Vol. 45, June 4, 1947 to June 29, 1947
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42.6 Vol. 46, June 29, 1947 to August 5, 1947
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42.7 Vol. 47, August 5, 1947 to September 6, 1947
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42.8 Vol. 48, September 6, 1947 to November 3, 1947
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42.9 Vol. 49, November 4, 1947 to November 28, 1947
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43.1 Vol. 50, November 28, 1947 to January 3, 1948
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43.2 Vol. 52, January 3, 1948 to February 7, 1948
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43.3 Vol. 54, March 18, 1948 to April 20, 1948
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43.4 Vol. 55, April 20, 1948 to May 31, 1948
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43.5 Vol. 56, May 31, 1948 to July 8, 1948
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43.6 Vol. 57, July 8, 1948 to August 15, 1948
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43.7 Vol. 58, August 15, 1948 to September 24, 1948
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43.8 Vol. 59, September 25, 1948 to October 23, 1948
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43.9 Vol. 60, October 23, 1948 to December 2, 1948
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43.10 Vol. 61, December 3, 1948 to January 15, 1949
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43.11 Vol. 62, January 15, 1949 to March 4, 1949
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44.1 Vol. 63, March 5, 1949 to April 12, 1949
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44.2 Vol. 64, April 12, 1949 to May 20, 1949
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44.3 Vol. 65, May 20, 1949 to June 26, 1949
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44.4 Vol. 66, June 26, 1949 to August 30, 1949
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44.5 Vol. 67, August 31, 1949 to October 15, 1949
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44.6 Vol. 68, October 15, 1949 to November 18, 1949
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44.7 Vol. 69, November 18, 1949 to December 22, 1949
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44.8 Vol. 70, December 22, 1949 to January 17, 1950
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44.9 Vol. 71, January 17, 1950 to February 17, 1950
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45.1 Vol. 72, February 17, 1950 to March 16, 1950
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45.2 Vol. 73, March 16, 1950 to April 25, 1950
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45.3 Vol. 74, April 25, 1950 to June 5, 1950
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45.4 Vol. 75, June 5, 1950 to July 12, 1950
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45.5 Vol. 76, July 13, 1950 to August 19, 1950
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45.6 Vol. 77, August 19, 1950 to September 24, 1950
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45.7 Vol. 78, September 24, 1950 to October 30, 1950
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45.8 Vol. 79, October 30, 1950 to December 2, 1950
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45.9 Vol. 80, December 3, 1950 to January 21, 1951



Series IV. Additional Hall and Troubridge Papers, 1806; 1919-1944

Subseries A. Works, 1935-1938
Container
46.1 Untitled poem, A ship is a lovely thing, great with adventure…, signed handwritten manuscript, 1 page, 1935; initialed handwritten manuscript, 1 page, 16 November 1938. Written on the signed manuscript: "from The Forgotten Island."
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46.2 The Sixth Beatitude, typescript, 276 pages, April-October 1935.
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46.3 The Sixth Beatitude, carbon typescript / author's copy with handwritten note to printer, 276 pages, April-October 1935. Handwritten list of corrections enclosed.
Subseries B. Letters, 1919-1942
Container
46.4 3 ALS to Caruth, Jane, 1926.
5 ALS "John" to Macy, Winifred, 1919-1930.
TccLS to The Plimpton Press, 5 February 1932.
571 ALS, TL, 28 APCS, 5 APC, 67 telegrams to Souline, Evguenia, 1934-1942:
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46.5 Undated; 1934, July - September 5
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46.6 1934, September 6 - November 1
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47.1 1934, November 2 - December
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47.2 1935, January - April 21
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47.3 1935, April 23 - October 23
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47.4 1935, October 24 - December 4
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47.5 1936, January 31 - 1937, August 9
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48.1 1937, August 10 - 1938, May
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48.2 1938, June
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48.3 1938, July - August
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48.4 1938, September - December
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49.1 1939, January - March 17
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49.2 1939, March 19 - June
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49.3 1939, July - 1940, April
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49.4 1940, May - 1941, October 10
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49.5 1941, October 12 - December
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50.1 1942, January - April
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50.2 1942, May - August
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50.3 1942, September - December
Subseries C. Miscellaneous, 1806; 1934-1944
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50.4 Cumbo, Enrico, Dr. Radiological examination of the chest of Radclyffe Hall, typed report, 1 page, 31 May 1939.
Franciscans. ALS, TLS to Hall, Radclyffe, 15 December 1934, 30 July 1937.
Grellier, Bernard. X-ray report of the leg of Radclyffe Hall, handwritten report, 1 page, 30 August 1937.
National Provincial Bank Limited. Bayswater Branch. TLS to Souline, Evguenia, 1 January 1935. Included with this: deposit slip, 1 June 1939.
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52 (osb) Radclyffe, William, 1770-1828. The genealogy of the Radclyffes of Foxdenton… extracted from the records of the College of Arms, London, by William Radclyffe, Rouge Croix Pursuivant of Arms, handwritten genealogical chart, 1806. Purchase R14474, 1999.
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50.4 Souline, Evguenia. ALS / copy to Hall, Radclyffe, 4 June 1939.
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50.5-6 Troubridge, Una Elena Taylor, Lady. 68 ALS, APCS to Souline, Evguenia, 1934-1942, undated.
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50.4 Visetti, Marie. 6 ALS to Caruth, Jane, 1943-1944.
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51 Formerly folder 22.1
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37; 52 Oversize boxes



Explanatory Note Concerning Manuscript Collections Cataloged in the Card Catalog

Prior to 1990 when archival cataloging procedures were adopted at the Ransom Center, all manuscript collections were described in a card catalog.

Organization of Collections:

Manuscripts for each author collection were organized into four categories:

  • Works: manuscripts by the author, arranged alphabetically by title;
  • Letters: the author's outgoing correspondence, arranged alphabetically by recipient name;
  • Recipient: the author's incoming correspondence, arranged alphabetically by the author of the letter; and
  • Miscellaneous: all other manuscripts and correspondence, arranged alphabetically by creator.

Materials that did not fit into these categories, such as art, photographs, books, and near-print materials such as newspaper clippings, were dispersed to other Ransom Center collections for cataloging and storage.

Abbreviations Used in Descriptions:

The symbols below were used in combinations. For example ALS means autograph letter signed; Tccms means typed carbon copy manuscript, etc.

  • A = autograph (i.e., handwritten)
  • T = typed
  • S = signed
  • I = initialed
  • Ms = manuscript
  • Mss = manuscripts
  • L = letter
  • FL = form letter
  • N = note
  • D = document
  • C = card
  • PC = post card
  • cc = carbon copy
  • p = page
  • pp = pages
  • l = leaf
  • ll = leaves
  • nd = no date
  • inc d = incomplete date