Austin History Center

Early African American Education Research Materials Collection

An Inventory of the Collection

Overview of the Collection

Creator: Camacho, Danny
Title: Early African American Education Research Materials Collection
Inclusive Dates: 1866-1975
Bulk Dates: 1860-1880
Abstract: An artificial collection consisting of photocopies of correspondence, reports, notes and clippings related to the Freedmen's Bureau and the American Missionary Association, two organizations that played key roles in the education of African Americans in Travis County following the Civil War. Both organizations were vital in assisting former slaves with the transition between slavery and freedom. Although they took an active role in a variety of areas, they excelled in education. Between 1862 and 1872, both organizations worked in conjunction to help build, maintain, fund and manage schools dedicated to educating and assisting freedmen.
Identification: AR.2012.037
Quantity: .20 linear feet
Location: Archives stacks
Language: The records are in English.
Repository: Austin History Center, Austin Public Library 810 Guadalupe, PO BOX 2287, Austin, TX 78768

Administrative History

The Freedmen's Bureau was established in the War Department on March 3, 1865. The Bureau supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees and freedmen, including issuing rations, clothing and medicine. In the field of education, the Freedmen's bureau helped to build more than 1,000 African American schools. Many of the major African American colleges in the United States were founded with the assistance of the Freedmen's Bureau and or the American Missionary Association. - The Social Welfare History Project .

The American Missionary Association (AMA) was established in 1846 by a network of nineteenth-century abolitionists. During the Civil War, the Association began founding schools for the freedmen. As slaves were freed during the Civil War, the AMA altered its mission to making provisions for them. The primary focus of these groups was to raise funds to pay teachers and manage schools, while the secondary focus was the day-to-day operation of individual schools. More than 500 churches and schools were set up by the AMA to help acculturate the newly freed slaves. - Amistad Research Center (American Missionary Association)

Biographical Note

JACOB FONTAINE, (1808-1898) was a Baptist preacher, political and civic leader, and newspaper publisher in Austin, who was born into slavery in Arkansas in 1808. He is best known for founding five Baptist Churches including the First (Colored) Baptist Church: Mount Zion (Williamson Creek), 1873; Good Hope (Round Rock), 1874; Sweet Home (Clarksville), 1877; New Hope (Wheatsville), 1887; and St. Stephen's (Waters Park); the founding of the St. Johns Missionary Association, an organization of Baptist Churches around Texas; and finally the founding of the one of the first weekly newspapers devoted to the African American community that was owned and operated by an African American in Travis County. - Handbook of Texas Online

EDWIN MILLER WHEELOCK, (1829-1901). Edwin Miller Wheelock was a minister, abolitionist, and educator who was born in New York City. He served in the Civil War as a first lieutenant in the Seventy-Sixth United States Colored Infantry. After the Civil War, he served as Superintendent of the Freedmen's Bureau Schools between the years of 1865 and 1867. - Handbook of Texas Online

ELIZABETH M. EVANS-GARLAND, (1840 - 1902) was a teacher in the early freedmen schools for the American Missionary Association and the Freedmen's Bureau. She later worked as a principle of the First Ward School, Evans School and Garland School, of which, the latter two seemed to be named in her honor.

Scope and Contents

This artificial collection consists of photocopies of research material related to early African American education in Travis County. The creator, Danny Camacho obtained the records from the Texas State Archive and Library while doing research on Elizabeth M. Evans Garland, a teacher who worked for the Freedmen's Bureau and the American Missionary Association. The records (1866-1975)include correspondence and reports from teachers to the Freedmen's Bureau and the American Missionary Association regarding student populations and payments; Background information on the Freedmen's Bureau and the American Missionary Association, including a list of teachers employed by the Freedmen's Bureau; And finally, clippings about Tillotson College and Elizabeth M. Evans-Garland; Notable within the correspondence folders are notes and letters written by Jacob Fontaine, E.M. Wheelock and Elizabeth M. Evans Garland.


This collection is arranged by material type.


Restrictions on Access

Open to all users.

Restrictions on Use


Index Terms

This record series is indexed under the following controlled access subject terms.
Garland, Elizabeth M. Evans.
Fontaine, Jacob.
Freedmen's Bureau
American Missionary Association.
Austin (Tex.).
Freedmen--Education--Southern States.

Related Material

AF Biographical Files:

  • Elizabeth M.Evans-Garland
  • Jacob Fontaine
  • E.M. Wheelock

Administrative Information

Custodial History

Mr. Camacho found the documents at the Texas State Archive while doing research on Elizabeth M. Evans-Garland.

Preferred Citation

Early African American Education Research Materials Collection (AR.2012.037). Austin History Center, Austin Public Library, Austin, Texas.

Acquisition Information

Donor #: DO/1992/067

Donation Date: August, 2012

Processing Information

Finding Aid created and encoded by Cynthia Evans in 2012.

Detailed Description of the Collection

Early African American Education Research Materials Collection, 1866-1975, undated

Box Folder
1 1 Correspondence from Elizabeth M. Evans-Garland/C.T. Garland, 1876-1878
2 Correspondence from Jacob Fontaine, 1866
3 Correspondence from Fannie Campbell, 1866-1867
4 Reports to the American Missionary Association, 1871
5 Reports to the Freedmen's Bureau, 1867-1869
6 Receipts from the Freedmen's Bureau, 1870-1890
7 Background Information, Freedmen's Bureau, 1867, undated
9 Background Information, American Missionary Association, 1878-1883
10 Clippings, 1876-1975