Early African American Education Research Materials Collection
An Inventory of the Collection
The Freedmen's Bureau was established in the War Department on March 3, 1865. The Bureau supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees and freedmen, including issuing rations, clothing and medicine. In the field of education, the Freedmen's bureau helped to build more than 1,000 African American schools. Many of the major African American colleges in the United States were founded with the assistance of the Freedmen's Bureau and or the American Missionary Association. - The Social Welfare History Project .
The American Missionary Association (AMA) was established in 1846 by a network of nineteenth-century abolitionists. During the Civil War, the Association began founding schools for the freedmen. As slaves were freed during the Civil War, the AMA altered its mission to making provisions for them. The primary focus of these groups was to raise funds to pay teachers and manage schools, while the secondary focus was the day-to-day operation of individual schools. More than 500 churches and schools were set up by the AMA to help acculturate the newly freed slaves. - Amistad Research Center (American Missionary Association)
JACOB FONTAINE, (1808-1898) was a Baptist preacher, political and civic leader, and newspaper publisher in Austin, who was born into slavery in Arkansas in 1808. He is best known for founding five Baptist Churches including the First (Colored) Baptist Church: Mount Zion (Williamson Creek), 1873; Good Hope (Round Rock), 1874; Sweet Home (Clarksville), 1877; New Hope (Wheatsville), 1887; and St. Stephen's (Waters Park); the founding of the St. Johns Missionary Association, an organization of Baptist Churches around Texas; and finally the founding of the one of the first weekly newspapers devoted to the African American community that was owned and operated by an African American in Travis County. - Handbook of Texas Online
EDWIN MILLER WHEELOCK, (1829-1901). Edwin Miller Wheelock was a minister, abolitionist, and educator who was born in New York City. He served in the Civil War as a first lieutenant in the Seventy-Sixth United States Colored Infantry. After the Civil War, he served as Superintendent of the Freedmen's Bureau Schools between the years of 1865 and 1867. - Handbook of Texas Online
ELIZABETH M. EVANS-GARLAND, (1840 - 1902) was a teacher in the early freedmen schools for the American Missionary Association and the Freedmen's Bureau. She later worked as a principle of the First Ward School, Evans School and Garland School, of which, the latter two seemed to be named in her honor.
This artificial collection consists of photocopies of research material related to early African American education in Travis County. The creator, Danny Camacho obtained the records from the Texas State Archive and Library while doing research on Elizabeth M. Evans Garland, a teacher who worked for the Freedmen's Bureau and the American Missionary Association. The records (1866-1975)include correspondence and reports from teachers to the Freedmen's Bureau and the American Missionary Association regarding student populations and payments; Background information on the Freedmen's Bureau and the American Missionary Association, including a list of teachers employed by the Freedmen's Bureau; And finally, clippings about Tillotson College and Elizabeth M. Evans-Garland; Notable within the correspondence folders are notes and letters written by Jacob Fontaine, E.M. Wheelock and Elizabeth M. Evans Garland.
Restrictions on Access
Open to all users.
Restrictions on Use
Mr. Camacho found the documents at the Texas State Archive while doing research on Elizabeth M. Evans-Garland.
Early African American Education Research Materials Collection (AR.2012.037). Austin History Center, Austin Public Library, Austin, Texas.
Donor #: DO/1992/067
Donation Date: August, 2012
Finding Aid created and encoded by Cynthia Evans in 2012.
Detailed Description of the Collection