BiblioNoticias No. No. 84, March 1996

Editor: Ann Hartness

The Anti-Immigrant Backlash: Selected Sources

Compiled by Margo Gutiérrez

Since the beginning of the 1990s, the ongoing public debate on immigration has reached new levels resulting in resurgent nativism, along with efforts to withhold public services to immigrants and better regulate movement along the U.S.-Mexico border. The works cited below reflect various viewpoints and represent only a small sampling of the vast body of literature relating to recent immigration from Mexico, its perceived effects on the United States economy and society, and nativist perspectives spawned by the debate. Many more sources can be located through the UT Libraries' online catalog,. Useful subject headings include: ALIENS-ILLEGAL, SERVICES FOR; CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 187; MEXICO-EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION-UNITED STATES; NATIVISM; TAXATION OF ALIENS, and UNITED STATES-EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION-PUBLIC OPINION.

Other sources for research, including periodical articles, can be found in various online and CD-ROM-based indexes and databases, including Academic Periodical Index, ERIC (education), Hispanic American Periodical Index, Social Sciences Abstracts, and PAIS (public policy). All materials cited herein are located in the Benson Latin American Collection stacks, with one exception as noted.

Sources for Background Reading

Balderrama, Francisco E., and Raymond Rodríguez. Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.
This social history examines "the treatment of the Mexican community by American and Mexican authorities during the decade of the Great Depression."
E 184 M5 B35 1995 LAC Additional copy in Perry-Castañeda Library

Cornelius, Wayne A. America In the Era of Limits: Migrants, Nativists, and the Future of U.S.-Mexican Relations. La Jolla, CA: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego, 1982.
Written nearly 15 years ago, this paper states that nativist attitudes, fed by economic dislocation, has set the stage for "another sharp anti-immigrant, anti-Mexican backlash, and when it comes, U.S.-Mexican relations will deteriorate swiftly, regardless of other interests which may be at stake in the bilateral relationship."
JV 6455 C584 1982 LAC

García, Juan Ramon. Operation Wetback: The Mass Deportation of Mexican Undocumented Workers in 1954. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980.
Looks at factors leading to influx of braceros into the U.S., and the attitudes and policies that resulted in yet another mass deportation drive. García argues that policymakers have dealt with the undocumented as a cause rather than a symptom of societal problems.
E 184 M5 G376 LAC Additional copies in Perry-Castañeda and Undergraduate libraries

Hoffman, Abraham. Unwanted Mexican Americans in the Great Depression: Repatriation Pressures, 1929-1939. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1974.
A classic account of the repatriation, some voluntary but much of it forced, of over 400,000 Mexican nationals and their American-born children in the decade of the 1930s.
E 184 M5 H63 LAC

The Use of Public Services by Undocumented Aliens in Texas: A Study of State Costs and Revenues. Austin: Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin, 1984.
One of the earlier attempts to determine the "burden of cost," this report found that while undocumented people in Texas do use public services, they also pay taxes; concludes that "tax revenues from [the] undocumented ... clearly exceed costs to provide public services to them."
HJ 2053 T5 U84 1984 LAC Additional copies in Perry-Castañeda and Public Affairs libraries

Recent Works

Alarcón, Rafael. Proposition 187: An Effective Measure to Deter Undocumented Migration to California? A Report. San Francisco: Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy, 1994.
"Describes the socioeconomic causes that led to the emergence of Proposition 187; examine[s] the assumptions ... and its alleged effectiveness to deter undocumented immigration; and review[s] the current ... literature that challenges the assumptions of the proposition in the current socioeconomic context of California."
HD 4011 C2 A627 1994 LAC

Barry, Tom. Crossing the Line: Immigrants, Economic Integration, and Drug Enforcement on the U.S.-Mexico Border. Albuquerque: Resource Center Press, 1994.
Discusses factors for cross-border movement of immigrant labor, illegal substances, and manufactured goods, their effect on the U.S. north of the borderlands, and debate generated by these issues.
HC 137 M46 B37 1994 LAC

Brimelow, Peter. Alien Nation: Common Sense About America's Immigration Disaster. New York: Random House, 1995.
Brimelow argues that race and ethnicity are "being radically altered through public policy [with] the most profound effects" and questions whether Americans really understand the implications of an "alien nation."
JV 6493 B78 1995 LAC Additional copies in Perry-Castañeda and Undergraduate libraries

Brutality Unchecked: Human Rights Abuses Along the U.S. Border With Mexico. New York: Americas Watch, 1992.
Documents shootings, lethal force, physical and verbal abuse, raids, and conditions of holding facilities in the course of apprehension and detention of undocumented immigrants.
KF 4800 B67 1992 LAC

California School District Administrators Speak to Proposition 187: A TRC Survey. Claremont, CA: Tomás Rivera Center, 1994.
Concludes that 60 percent of state school superintendents polled believe that Prop 187 would have a highly negative impact "on their district's ability to deliver education services." Primarily tabular and graphic data.
LC 5155.22 C2 C35 1994 LAC

Citrin, Jack, et al. Public Opinion Toward Immigration Reform: How Much Does the Economy Matter? Berkeley: Chicano/Latino Policy Project, Institute for the Study of Social Change, University of California, 1995.
"Explore[s] the underpinnings of public opinion on issues raised by the current national debate on immigration reform."
JV 6471 P825 1995 LAC

Clark, Rebecca L., and Jeffrey S. Passel. How Much Do Immigrants Pay in Taxes? Evidence From Los Angeles County . Washington, DC: Program for Research on Immigration Policy, Populations Studies Center, Urban Institute, 1993.
Challenges the findings of the Los Angeles County study listed below; authors state that methodology is faulty because the study focuses only on recent arrivals rather than all immigrants, and better estimates costs than revenues.
F 868 L8 C53 1993 LAC

Clark, Rebecca L., et al. Fiscal Impacts of Undocumented Aliens: Selected Estimates For Seven States. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 1994.
Based on "estimates of the costs of supplying three types of services and the revenues, generated by three types of taxes," this study found that undocumented immigrants make considerable tax contributions in each of the seven states studied and that in every state the share of these contributions was far less than their share of the population.
JV 6471 F57 1994 LAC

Davis, Venson C. Blood on the Border: Criminal Behavior and Illegal Immigration Along the Southern U.S. Border. New York: Vantage, 1993.
The author claims that "it is typical for criminal, undocumented aliens to deliberately initiate and engage in a a wide range of aggressive violence" along the U.S.-Mexico border.
JV 6493 D38 1993 LAC

Dunn, Timothy J. The Militarization of the U.S. Mexico Border, 1978-1992: Low-Intensity Conflict Doctrine Comes Home. Austin: Center for Mexican American Studies, University of Texas at Austin, 1996.
On order for LAC

Eisenstadt, Todd A., and Cathryn L. Thorup. Caring Capacity Versus Carrying Capacity: Community Responses to Mexican Immigration in San Diego's North County. La Jolla, CA: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego, 1994.
"A comprehensive examination of the immigration question within a cost/benefit framework, emphasizing the need for burden and benefit sharing at both the national and local levels."
JV 6895 M48 E42 1994 LAC

Esparza, Daniel, et al. Immigrants & Immigration: An Overview of Issues Facing Texas. Austin: Texas State Senate Research Center, 1994.
This report, developed for state policymakers, concludes that uneven and inconsistent estimates of immigrants' fiscal impacts on Texas and other states make it difficult to determine true costs and benefits.
JV 7098 I465 1994 LAC

Faulty Immigration Studies Mislead Policymakers and Inflame Anti-Immigrant Sentiment . Claremont, CA: Tomás Rivera Center, 1994.
A very brief critique of three studies that address the benefits and costs of immigrants to state and local goverments.
JV 6477 F385 1994 LAC

Huddle, Donald R. The Net National Costs of Immigration in 1994. Washington, DC: Carrying Capacity Network, 1995.
-q- JV 6471 H82 1995 LAC-Z Request in Rare Books Reading Room

Human Rights at the Mexico-U.S. Border: Second Annual Report. Houston: Immigration Law and Enforcement Monitoring Project, American Friends Service Committee, 1990.
This brief report documents incidents of "abuse of authority and violation of rights" and seeks to encourage "a more humane approach to the enforcement of immigration laws."
JC 599 U5 H84 1990

Impact of Undocumented Persons and Other Immigrants on Costs, Revenues and Services in Los Angeles County: A Report. Los Angeles, CA: Internal Services Department, Los Angeles County, 1992.
This report, generated at the request of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, determined that the net costs of providing services to three immigrant groups (recent legal immigrants, recipients of amnesty, and the undocumented) outweighed the revenues, taxes and fees generated by the same groups.
HJ 9205 L68 L678 1992 LAC

Lutton, Wayne, and John Tanton. The Immigration Invasion. Monterey, VA: American Immigration Control Foundation, 1994.
According to the authors, immigrants, both legal and undocumented, are a tax burden and bear responsiblity for ethnic divisions, low wages, unemployment, and increasing levels of crime, drug use, terrorism, and environmental pollution.
JV 6493 L87 1994 LAC Additional copy in Perry-Castañeda Library

Martin, John L. Operation Blockade: A Bullying Tactic Or a Border Control Model? Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies, 1993.
Finds that the Border Patrol's efforts in El Paso have been successful and suggests that replication in other border areas be seriously considered.
HV 8145 T4 M375 1993 LAC

Martínez, Roger. Dispelling the Job Competition Myth: An Analysis of Undocumented Immigrants' Impact on U.S. Workers . Berkeley: Chicano/Latino Policy Project, Institute for the Study of Social Change, University of California.
The results of the study found that "immigrants' displacement of native laborers is negligible ... [that] immigrants complement native laborers ... [and] do not have an adverse effect on the wages of native workers."
HD 8081 A5 M378 1994 LAC

Nelson, Brent A. America Balkanized: Immigration's Challenge to Government. Monterey, VA: American Immigration Control Foundation, 1994.
Argues that certain regions of the U.S. with high concentrations of Latinos and other ethnic groups, are in danger of being claimed by autonomists, separatists and irredentists.
JV 6493 N45 1994 LAC Additional copies in Perry-Castañeda and Undergraduate libraries

Operation Blockade: A City Divided. Philadelphia: Community Relations Division, Immigration Law Enforcement Monitoring Project, American Friends Service Committee, 1994.
Investigates the effects and policy implications of the blockade, subsequently renamed "Operation Hold the Line," on the citizens of the Ciudad Juárez-El Paso border area.
HV 8148 E46 A44 1994 LAC

Passel, Jeffrey S. How Much Do Immigrants Really Cost? Claremont, CA: Tomás Rivera Center, 1994.
A rebuttal to a study on the fiscal impacts of immigrants conducted by Donald Huddle of Rice University; author concludes that Huddle's methodology is faulty and erroneous; also published by the Urban Institute as Immigrants and Taxes: A Reappraisal of Huddle's 'The Costs of Immigrants.'
HJ 2395 P37 1994 LAC

Sealing Our Borders: The Human Toll. Philadelphia: Americans Friends Service Committee, 1992.
This third report of the AFSC's Immigration Law Enforcement Monitoring Project (ILEMP), asserts that abuses in the enforcement of immigration policies along the U.S.-Mexico border have not abated.
JV 6507 I454 1992

Stop Prop 187: Open the Border; A Resource Manual for Organizers. Albuquerque: Nuevo Mexicanos en Contra de la Propuesta 187/New Mexicans Against Proposition 187, 1995.
This title is something of a misnomer in that in consists primarily of photocopied newspaper articles relating to the passage of California's Proposition 187 in 1994.
JV 6920 S76 1995 LAC

1996 by The University of Texas at Austin.
This material may be quoted or reproduced without prior permission, provided appropriate credit is given. Benson Latin American Collection The General Libraries January 1996

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