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No. 102, November 1999

Editor: Ann Hartness

Ecotourism in Latin America

Compiled by Craig Schroer

In the past decade, the idea of ecotourism as a means of combining sustainable development with ecological protection has garnered a good deal of attention from several different quarters including environmentalists, indigenous peoples, business people and government agencies. This bibliography is intended as a guide to the holdings available at the Benson Collection and, in a few instances, elsewhere on campus. As new titles are added to the collection they will be accessible through the library catalog by doing a subject search on "ecotourism."

Guides and Travel Books,

Asturias, Francisco. Guatemala, aventura natural: guia ilustrada sobre treinta y nueve sitios naturales el de turismo ecologico: o unico da especie / (texto de Joao Meirelles Filho). Rio de Janeiro: Libris Editora, c1992.
A travel handbook to various regions of Brazil. It provides information on hotels, transport, gastronomy of locales selected for the natural beauty, ecological significance, or exotic setting. Each entry introduces the region, its climate, culture, economy and natural attractions and also ascribes a rating of one to five stars.
SB 484 B7 G84 1992 Benson Latin American Collection

Guia ecoturistica de Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela: Miro Popic Editor C.A., 1995-
A travel guide to ecotourism sites throughout Venezuela, divided into camping areas, national parks, natural monuments, and lodges. All of the entries are given ample descriptions, listings of available services, attractions and prices, as well as a rating of one to five stars.
F 2309.5 G97 NO.1 1995 Benson Latin American Collection

Mader, Ron. Mexico: adventures in nature. Santa Fe, N.M.: J. Muir Publications.: Berkeley, Calif.: Distributed to the book trade by Publishers Group West, c1998.
A very detailed, comprehensive guide to ecotourism in Mexico. This book is simply packed with information and should be a "must read" for anyone planning on touring Mexico.
F 1209 M25 1998 Benson Latin American Collection

Rainforest Expeditions (Firm). Rainforest expeditions: Peru & Bolivia. Lima, Peru: Rainforest Expeditions, (1993?)
A glossy, full-color brochure describing the attractions offered by Rainforest Expeditions. Expeditions are offered in a variety of contrasting settings within Peru and Bolivia.
F 3409.5 R35 1993 Benson Latin American Collection

Rice, Larry, 1950-. Baja to Patagonia: Latin American adventures. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Pub., c1993.
A vivid and entertaining travel journal charting a variety of "outdoorsy" travel adventures in Latin America as experienced by author Larry Rice. A number of chapters have appeared previously in magazines.
F 1409.3 R53 1993 Benson Latin American Collection

Wesche, Rolf. The ecotourist's guide to the Ecuadorian Amazon: Napo Province / Rolf Wesche; with Eric Crighton ... (et al.). Quito: CEPEIGE, c1995.
Includes a section describing petroglyphs in the Tena region and their interpretations. Also, contains a set of topographical maps corresponding to the parks discussed in the text.
F 3741 N3 W47 1995 Benson Collection LAC-Z Rare Books USE IN LIBRARY ONLY

World travel: a guide to international ecojourneys. Edited by Christopher P. Baker ... (et al.); (Alexandria, Va.): Time-Life Books, c1996.
A richly illustrated guide to ecotourism around the globe. A forty page chapter on Central and South America describes eleven premier attractions spanning Baja California to Patagonia.
G 155 A1 W68 1996 UGL Reference Collection USE IN LIBRARY ONLY


Ecotourism – Entrepreneurial Guides, Manuals and Proposals

Diretrizes para uma politica nacional de ecoturismo / Grupo de Trabalho Interministerial MICT/MMA. Brasilia, D.F.: EMBRATUR/IBAMA, (1994).
An official Brazilian government publication outlining the steps necessary to achieve the potential offered by ecotourism, including sections on conceptualization, objectives, actions and strategies. The forward is by Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso.
G 155 B6 D57 1994 Benson Latin American Collection

Manual de ecoturismo. (S.l.): Commission des Communautes europeennes (Commission of the European Communities); (Brazil): EMBRATUR, 1994.
A manual outlining the considerations necessary when planning to invest in ecotourism. The general areas covered include acquiring infrastructure, assessing environmental impact, developing human resources, and marketing and promotion.
-Q- G 155 A1 M36 1994A Benson Latin American Collection

Ruschmann, Doris van de Meene. Turismo e planejamento sustentavel: a protecao do meio ambiente / Doris van de Meene Ruschmann. Campinas, SP: Papirus Editora, (1997).
Similar to the "manual de plan....", this book is a planning guide devoted to the logistics of establishing an ecotourism service or locale. It also covers the current state of the tourism industry and its future directions in the first and last chapters respectively.
G 155 A1 R871 1997 Benson Latin American Collection

Zapata, Luis F. An ecotourism plan for Sierra Tarahumara. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Texas at Austin, 1994.
A study of the Sierra Tarahumara region in Southwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, examining current natural resources, local inhabitants, and drafting a proposal to develop ecotourism in the area.
THESIS 1994 Z17 PCL Stacks COPY 2
THESIS 1994 Z17 Periodicals Desk PCL Level 2 COPY 1 USE IN LIBRARY ONLY


Ecotourism – Theory and Criticism

Ceballos-Lascurain, Hector. Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas: the state of nature-based tourism around the world and guidelines for its development.. Gland; Cambridge: IUCN, 1996.
"Based on papers presented at the tourism workshops held during the IV World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela, 10-21 February 1992." Includes the text of the 1992 "Caracas Declaration," developed by the World Parks Congress and delivered and adapted by the United nations conference on Environment and Development. Also includes basic design blueprints of ecotourism lodging accomodations, several of which are in Costa Rica.
G 154.9 C43 1996 Life Science Library

Entre retos y rutas: "el ecoturismo como una alternativa de desarrollo para los pueblos indigenas" / editado por el Programa Regional de Apoyo a los Pueblos Indigenas de la Cuenca del Amazonas (PRAIA); editores, Jaime Iturri Salmon, Juan Carlos Schulze M., Luz Beatriz Gaviria V. La Paz, Bolivia: PRAIA, (1998)
Conclusions from a conference held Nov. 23-29, 1997 in Capirona, Alto Napo, Amazonia ecuatoriana. Examines the cultural, economic, and sustainable development potential of ecotourism for indigenous peoples. The text is a mix of "how to" information, case studies, and advice on managing the social changes caused by this mode of development.
G 155 A44 E58 1998 Benson Latin American Collection

Honey, Martha. Ecotourism and sustainable development: who owns paradise? Washington, D.C.: Island Press, c1999.
Contains substantial chapters on ecotourism in Costa Rica, Cuba, and the Galapagos Islands. The first three chapters are an excellent overview of the origins of ecotourism.
G 156.5 E26 H66 1999 PCL Stacks

McLaren, Deborah. Rethinking tourism and ecotravel: the paving of paradise and what you can do to stop it. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, c1998.
An important overview of the promises and ptifalls of ecotourism. A very readable, yet detailed work with a substantial bibliography at the end of each chapter.
G 155 A1 M388 1998 PCL Stacks
G 155 A1 M388 1998 Undergraduate Library

Pedersen, Art. Nature-oriented tourism in the state of Guerrero, Mexico: issues and recommended policies for local economic development / Art Pedersen and Hector Ceballos-Lascurain. Washington, D.C.: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, (1990).
Nature-oriented tourism in the state of Guerrero, Mexico...
This work is notable for its brevity and readability, particularly as an overview of market/clientele factors to consider when developing ecotourism programs. Although it focuses on Guerrero, Mexico, the considerations taken into account are applicable to most any region.
G 155 M4 P333 1990 Benson Latin American Collection
G 155 M4 P333 1990 Benson Latin American Collection COPY 2
G 155 M4 P333 1990 Public Affairs Library

Ribeiro, Gustavo Lins. A corrida por paisagens autenticas: turismo, meio ambiente e subjetividade na contemporaneidade / Gustavo Lins Ribeiro, Flavia Lessa de Barros. Brasilia: Departamento de Antropologia, Universidade de Brasilia, 1994.
This paper attempts to realistically explore the potential of ecotourism by weighing in the various factors, such as differing political and economic ideologies, which may impede such development. The need for compromise among various development interests is seen as key to success but the author remains somewhat skeptical about this likelihood.
G 155 A1 R52 1994 Benson Latin American Collection

Sanchez Garcia, Geronimo. Barlovento: escenario para un ensayo turistico humanizado / Caracas: Ediciones "Los Heraldos Negros", 1994.
A proposal for the development of San José de Barlovento as a site for tourism/ecotourism.
G 155 V4 S36 1994 Benson Latin American Collection

Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials. (40th: 1995: Athens, Georgia). Societies under constraint, economic and social pressures in Latin America: papers of the Fortieth Annual Meeting of the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, April 29-May 5, 1995. Robert A. McNeil, editor. Austin: Salalm, Secretariat, Benson Latin American Collection, The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin, c1997.
Several papers published in this collection address the field of ecotourism. Particularly noteworthy is the bibliography by Laura Shedenhelm. A bibliography of books, chapters in books, and articles dealing with ecotourism in Central America. Entries begin with a section about ecotourism in Central America as a whole, after which sections are divided by country; Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. This is a very extensive bibliography covering articles from from the 1980s up through the mid-1990s. The titles of the other articles are self-explanatory.

• Shedenhelm, Laura D. Ecotursimo: el contexto centroamericano. pp. 175-179.

• Shedenhelm, Laura D. Bibliography on ecotourism in Central America.
pp. 180-195.

• Pinel O., Orfylia. Recursos bibliograficos sobre ecoturismo en Honduras.
pp. 196-210.

• Flores Ordonez, Rigoberto. Los nuevos pasos economicos: el desarrollo del ecoturismo En Centroamerica. pp. 211-214.

Z 688 L4 S46 1995 Benson Latin American Collection

Z 688 L4 S46 1995 Benson Latin American Collection COPY 2

Weaver, David B. Ecotourism in the less developed world. Oxon, UK; New York: CAB International, 1998.
Includes a chapter on ecotourism in Costa Rica which also briefly covers the dynamics of tourism in all of Latin America. Chapter 8 discusses ecotourism in the Caribbean and South Pacific and the Galapagos Islands and their somewhat similar contexts.
G 155 D44 W43 1998 PCL Stacks


Ecotourism – Case Studies

Fierro Carrion, Luis, 1964- Evaluacion comparativa de recursos recreativos renovables y recursos petroleros no renovables: parques nacionales en la selva tropical ecuatoriana /. (Comparative valuation of renewable amenity resources and exhaustible oil resources: the case of national parks in the Ecuadorean rainforest.) Quito, Ecuador: Multiplica, 1994.
Annotation: A bilingual (Spanish/English) report developed to measure relative monetary value of extractive industries (primarily oil) as compared to sustainable development activities such as ecotourism. The work strives to capture the current environmental costs of natural resource use and to develop models and equations to convert this information in economic figures. culminates in a set of algorithms and the statistics arrived at.
SB 484 E2 F54 1994 Benson Latin American Collection

Globalization and the rural poor in Latin America / edited by William M. Loker. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
An anthropological article on the social, political, and economic dynamics of ecotourism, using the Makushi people of Surama, Guyana as a case study.
HC 130 P6 G58 1999 Benson Latin American Collection HELD FOR BORROWER

Mader, Ronald Earl, 1963. Conservation in Costa Rica: managing a crisis with debt-for-nature swaps and ecotourism: a radio documentary. 1990.
Ron Mader went on to found the ecotourism periodical, "Planeta Platica." His Masters Thesis is a case study of ecotourism as a conservation measure in Costa Rica and his project of making a radio documentary of his findings.
THESIS 1990 M2645 Periodicals Desk PCL Level 2 COPY 1 USE IN LIBRARY ONLY

Mitchell, James Learmonth. Ecotourism and sea turtle conservation: Tamarindo, Costa Rica. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Texas at Austin, 1998.
A case study of te impact of ecotourism on sea turtle nesting beaches in Tamarindo, Costa Rica. A good exploration of the inevitable trade-offs made between tourism, sustainable development and wildlife protection.
THESIS 1998 M694 PCL Stacks COPY 2
THESIS 1998 M694 Periodicals Desk PCL Level 2 COPY 1 USE IN LIBRARY ONLY

Morrison, Polly Jo. The Monteverde area of Costa Rica: a case study of ecotourism development. Report (M.A., M.S. in C.R.P.)--University of Texas at Austin, 1994.
An excellent case study. The Master Degree Report offers history, interviews, statistics, maps, charts, and extensive bibliography in an easy to read style documenting the development of ecotourism in Monteverde, Costa Rica.
REPORT 1994 M835 Benson Collection LAC-Z Rare Books USE IN LIBRARY ONLY
REPORT 1994 M835 Architecture Library

Timber, tourists, and temples: conservation and development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico / edited by Richard B. Primack ... (et al.). Washington, D.C.: Island Press, c1998.
Based on the conference "Conservation and Community Development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico," held November 8-11, 1995, in Chetumal,
Quintana Roo, Mexico.
Annotation: Part five of this book focuses on Community Development, Conservation, and Ecotourism. Each chapter (seven in total) within this section addresses a different case study related to community development through conservation and ecotourism.
SD 414 M47 T55 1998 Benson Latin American Collection
SD 414 M47 T55 1998 Undergraduate Library
SD 414 M47 T55 1998 Life Science Library

Wunder, Sven. Ecoturismo, ingresos locales y conservacion: el caso de Cuyabeno, Ecuador / Quito: Union Mundial para la Naturaleza, Oficina Regional para America del Sur, 1996.
A substantive case study of the local impact of ecotourism in the Cuyabeno Fauna reserve in the Ecudorean Amazon. It explores many theoretical socia/economic models typically ascribed to ecotourism and compares them to their real-world models. One of the studies' conclusions is that "'desirable' and 'undesirable' impacts cannot always be separated in the unambiguous manner suggested by the principal axioms of ecotourism."
G 155 E2 W86 1996 Benson Collection LAC-Z Rare Books USE IN

Young, Emily Harriet. Elusive edens: linking local needs to nature protection in the coastal lagoons of Baja California Sur, Mexico. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Texas at Austin, 1995.
Examines the difficulties in mobilizing community-based institutions and regional economic and political structures to act in a united manner to protect and develop ecotourism-based tourism industries. Specifically, this study focuses on gray whale watching in the Gulf of California.
DISS 1995 Y84 Periodicals Desk PCL Level 2 USE IN LIBRARY ONLY


Electronic Resources

Several indexes and databases containing citations to information about ecotourism in Latin America are available to all library users on the UT Library Online (UTLOL) computer workstations. When accessed from outside of the General Libraries some databases require a valid UT ID. They are linked on the World Wide Web homepage of the Benson Latin American Collection (

Handbook of Latin American Studies

Hispanic American Periodicals Index

Alternative Press Index


Latin American Studies, vol. II


USENET Newsgroups


World Wide Web Sites - Global journal of practical ecotourism. Perhaps the premier ecotourism site on the web, Planeta has highlighted Latin American ecotourism since its debut in 1994. The site archives more than 10,000 pages of short articles and in-depth scholarly articles. Also includes a regularly updated directory of Spanish Language Schools in Latin America and Spain.

The University of Texas at Austin LANIC page (Latin American Network information Clearinghouse) has a tourism page containing many links to ecotourism in Latin America.

Their environment page also contains many useful links: